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Published on October 21, 2008

Author: Carrie.Heninger

Source: slideshare.net

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Enlightenment

10.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT Enlightenment – 18th C philosophical movement of intellectuals impressed by achievements of the Scientific Revolution Newtonian world-machine – world and everything in it works like a giant machine John Locke – Englishmen wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding Argued ppl born – with a tabula rasa (blank mind) Suggested – ppl molded by their experiences

Enlightenment – 18th C philosophical movement of intellectuals impressed by achievements of the Scientific Revolution

Newtonian world-machine – world and everything in it works like a giant machine

John Locke – Englishmen wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Argued ppl born – with a tabula rasa (blank mind)

Suggested – ppl molded by their experiences

Philosophe – meaning philosopher Chiefly from – nobility and the middle class Most leaders – of Enlightenment were French Role of philosophes – was to change the world Montesquieu – French From – nobility 1748 – published The Spirit of the Laws Tried to use – scientific method to find natural laws that govern society & politics

Philosophe – meaning philosopher

Chiefly from – nobility and the middle class

Most leaders – of Enlightenment were French

Role of philosophes – was to change the world

Montesquieu – French

From – nobility

1748 – published The Spirit of the Laws

Tried to use – scientific method to find natural laws that govern society & politics

ID’ed 3 kinds of govts 1. Republics – work for small states 2. Despotism – work for large states 3. Monarchies – work for moderate-size states Govt functioned – separation of powers (executive, legislative & judicial) Control each other – in system of checks & balances Ideas worked into – U.S. Constitution

ID’ed 3 kinds of govts

1. Republics – work for small states

2. Despotism – work for large states

3. Monarchies – work for moderate-size states

Govt functioned – separation of powers (executive, legislative & judicial)

Control each other – in system of checks & balances

Ideas worked into – U.S. Constitution

Voltaire – middle class Parisian Known for – criticism of Christianity Strong belief – in religious toleration – Treatise on Toleration Championed – deism Deist view – a mechanic (God) created the universe Universe like a – clock God – clockmaker Ran – without his interference, according to its own natural laws *His writing had a great influence on the French Revolution of 1789 and the American Revolution of 1776. http://www.visitvoltaire.com

Voltaire – middle class Parisian

Known for – criticism of Christianity

Strong belief – in religious toleration – Treatise on Toleration

Championed – deism

Deist view – a mechanic (God) created the universe

Universe like a – clock

God – clockmaker

Ran – without his interference, according to its own natural laws

Diderot – French writer Most famous contribution – Enchclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trade Attacked – religious superstition and supported religious toleration The Encyclopédie …"change the common way of thinking“…. It took 20 years to compile, with more than 70,000 illustrated articles on subjects ranging from asparagus to the zodiac. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/adopt-a-book/diderot.htm

Diderot – French writer

Most famous contribution – Enchclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trade

Attacked – religious superstition and supported religious toleration

Economics Laissez-faire – gov’t should leave economy alone Adam Smith, wrote – The Wealth of Nations Believed – state should not interfere in economic matters Govts 3 roles 1. protect society from invasion (army) 2. defend citizens from injustice (police) 3. keep up roads & canals (public works)

Economics

Laissez-faire – gov’t should leave economy alone

Adam Smith, wrote – The Wealth of Nations

Believed – state should not interfere in economic matters

Govts 3 roles

1. protect society from invasion (army)

2. defend citizens from injustice (police)

3. keep up roads & canals (public works)

THE LATER ENLIGHTENMENT 1760s – a new generation of philosophes Jean Jacques Rousseau – Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind Argued – that people had adopted laws & gov’t in order to preserve their private property In process – became enslaved by government Through social contract – entire society agrees to be governed by its general will Believed emotions – as well as reason were important to human development

1760s – a new generation of philosophes

Jean Jacques Rousseau – Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind

Argued – that people had adopted laws & gov’t in order to preserve their private property

In process – became enslaved by government

Through social contract – entire society agrees to be governed by its general will

Believed emotions – as well as reason were important to human development

Women’s Rights Mary Wollstonecraft – English writer wrote about women’s rights Noted – that ppl who argue that women should obey men also said that gov’t based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong Pointed out – that the power of men over women was equally wrong Enlight based on – ideal of reason in all human beings Women – should have equal rights in education as well as in economic and political life

Mary Wollstonecraft – English writer wrote about women’s rights

Noted – that ppl who argue that women should obey men also said that gov’t based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong

Pointed out – that the power of men over women was equally wrong

Enlight based on – ideal of reason in all human beings

Women – should have equal rights in education as well as in economic and political life

Social World of Enlightenment Greatest appeal – w/ aristocrats & upper class (peasants were unaware of Enl.) Growth of reading FR published 1750 – 300 1780s- 1,600 titles issued Dev of – magazines for general public Daily – newspapers were cheap and sometimes free in coffeehouses Published 1750

Greatest appeal – w/ aristocrats & upper class (peasants were unaware of Enl.)

Growth of reading

FR published 1750 – 300

1780s- 1,600 titles issued

Dev of – magazines for general public

Daily – newspapers were cheap and sometimes free in coffeehouses

Salons – elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class Conversation – centered on new ideas of the philosphes Brought – writers & artist together with aristocrats, gov’t officials, and wealthy middle-class people

Salons – elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class

Conversation – centered on new ideas of the philosphes

Brought – writers & artist together with aristocrats, gov’t officials, and wealthy middle-class people

Religion in Enlightenment Although philosophes attacked Christian churches most Europeans were still Christian Methodism – new religious movement John Wesley – Anglican minister Appealed – to lower classes Stressed – importance of hard work

Although philosophes attacked Christian churches most Europeans were still Christian

Methodism – new religious movement

John Wesley – Anglican minister

Appealed – to lower classes

Stressed – importance of hard work

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