Published on November 19, 2007
Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections: Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness University of California, Berkeley Spring 2005, Tuesdays 10:30am-12pm Instructors: Instructors Ben Sun, DVM, MPVM email@example.com Gundula Dunne, DVM, MPVM firstname.lastname@example.org Guest Lectures Jason Stull, DVM, MPVM Anne Kjemtrup, DVM, MPVM Goals: Goals Importance of Zoonoses in Public Health Ecology and Natural History Prevention and Control Organization: Organization 8 Weeks Presentation – Lecture – Questions Disease Coverage Multiple per lecture Examples Focus on animal aspects See references for additional reading Requirements: Requirements Weekly reading Case Report Paper Oral Presentation Oral Presentation: Oral Presentation Given at beginning of class Relevant to the lecture 10-15 minutes Identify disease Background Case Investigation Discuss Zoonotic Aspects Confidentiality (remove identifiers) Limited number of spaces Paper: Paper DUE MARCH 1 Any zoonotic disease Double spaces, font size 12 No more than 5 pages Background Case Investigation Discuss Zoonotic Aspects Need a topic? Ask us Class Schedule: Class Schedule Week 1 – Zoonosis Intro & TSE Week 2 – Rabies Week 3 – Classic Zoonoses Week 4 – Bioterrorism Week 5 – Vector-borne Diseases Week 6 – Parasitic Zoonoses Week 7 – Emerging Zoonoses Week 8 – Foodborne Illnesses Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections Lecture 1: Epidemiology and Control of Zoonotic Infections Lecture 1 January 18, 2005 Slide10: Part I: Introduction to Zoonoses Part II: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Intro to Zoonoses: Intro to Zoonoses Definition Importance Etiologies Animal Examples Transmission Routes Life Cycles Zoonoses: Zoonoses From the Greek: Zoon: Animal Noson: Disease Diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans - WHO 1959 Zoonoses: Zoonoses Does NOT include Fish and reptile toxins Allergies to vertebrates Diseases in which animal-derived food serves as a vehicle (e.g. hepatitis A contaminated deli meat) Experimentally transmitted diseases Zoonoses: Zoonoses > 250 zoonotic diseases 60% of US Household have ≥1 pet Multiple pets in the home Human-animal bond Exotic species as pets Zoonoses: Common Diseases: Zoonoses: Common Diseases Frequency – (CDC, 2003) Salmonella 39,919 Lyme disease 18,991 West Nile (CNS) 2,862 Trichinosis 4 Zoonoses: Zoonoses Spectrum of Disease Severity Death = rabies Severe illness = plague Chronic illness = Q-fever Mild illness = psittacosis Zoonoses: Importance: Zoonoses: Importance Economics Zoonotic disease are expensive Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis GI illness due to Salmonella or Campylobacter – lost productivity, medical costs Import/Export BSE – restriction on cattle Avian Influenza – restriction on chicken Travel/Globalization Decreased transit time - SARS Remote area accessibility Zoonoses: Importance: Zoonoses: Importance Surveillance Animals are sentinels Prevention and Control Animal = key component Complications (e.g. Lyme disease) Unknown reservoirs (e.g. Ebola) Zoonoses: Etiologic Classification: Zoonoses: Etiologic Classification Viral Bacterial Parasitic Mycotic Zoonoses: Viral Examples: Zoonoses: Viral Examples * indicates covered in lectures Zoonoses: Bacterial Examples: Zoonoses: Bacterial Examples * indicates covered in lectures Zoonoses: Parasitic Examples: Zoonoses: Parasitic Examples * indicates covered in lectures Zoonoses: Mycotic Examples: Zoonoses: Mycotic Examples Aspergillosis Blastomycosis Cryptococcosis* Dermatophytosis* Histoplasmosis Sporotrichosis * indicates covered in lectures Zoonoses: Animal Species: Zoonoses: Animal Species Dogs & Cats Rabies Roundworm Ringworm Lyme Disease (dogs only) Cat Scratch Disease (cats only) Food Animals Salmonella E.coli Brucellosis Zoonoses: Animal Species: Zoonoses: Animal Species Birds: Psittacosis West Nile Cryptococcus Reptiles, Fish, & Amphibians Salmonella Mycobacterium Wild Animals Hantavirus Plague Tularemia Routes of Transmission: Routes of Transmission Direct Droplet or Aerosol Oral Contact Indirect Foodborne Water-borne Fomite Vector-borne Environmental Zoonoses - Life Cycle: Zoonoses - Life Cycle ORTHOZOONOSES May be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate species E.g. rabies, brucellosis, anthrax Zoonosis: Rabies Life Cycle: Zoonosis: Rabies Life Cycle Virus inoculation (bite) Salivary gland excretion Zoonoses - Maintenance Cycle: Zoonoses - Maintenance Cycle CYCLOZOONOSES Requires more than one vertebrate species but no invertebrate host Most are cestodiases (tapeworm diseases) Taenia saginata and T. solium require man to be one of vertebrate hosts Others, such as hydatidosis, man is accidentally involved Slide31: Life Cycle: Zoonoses - Life Cycle: Zoonoses - Life Cycle METAZOONOSES Require both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete transmission All arboviral infections West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis Some bacterial diseases Plague, many rickettsia Some parasitic diseases Leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis Zoonoses: Metazoonoses: Zoonoses: Metazoonoses Invertebrate Host: Mosquitoes Vertebrate Host: Birds Incidental Hosts: HUMANS, horses, amphibians, other mammals Risk Factors: Risk Factors Companion Animal Dogs & roundworm Rats & Rat Bite Fever Occupational Animal control workers & rabies Wildlife biologists & hantavirus Foodborne Raw meat & E.coli Unpasteurized dairy & Listeria Risk Factors: Risk Factors Recreational Activities Camping & Lyme disease Farm Settings Sheep & Q-fever Cattle & Cryptosporidium Travel Maylasia & Nipha Australia & Hendra Reportable Diseases of Animals: Reportable Diseases of Animals By veterinarian or other individual Reported to CA Department of Health Services Plague Rabies Reportable to the CA Department of Food and Agriculture Anthrax Brucellosis Glanders Listeriosis Rabies in livestock Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis West Nile And more… Zoonosis: Take Home Points: Zoonosis: Take Home Points Transmitted between animals and humans Zoonoses are common Animals part of everyday life Recognize the risk factors Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements Dr. Bruno Chomel Dr. Ben Sun
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