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Published on October 19, 2007

Author: Lassie

Source: authorstream.com

1:  WMO Convention, Article 2 (a): “To facilitate world-wide cooperation in the establishment of networks of stations for the making of meteorological observations as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations related to meteorology, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of centres charged with the provisions of meteorological and related services." 1 2:  2 3:  3 4:  New Composite Observing System   Candidate Observing Systems The future GOS should build upon existing components, both surface and space based, and capitalize on existing and new observing technologies not presently incorporated or fully exploited Each incremental addition to the GOS would be reflected in better data, products and services from the NMHSs 4 5:  New Composite Observing System   should Be reliable and able to meet long-term needs of relevant WMO Programmes and a wide variety of purposes and uses into the first few decades of the 21st century; Cover ocean and data-sparse areas adequately; Permit making new technologies available at affordable costs, so that all Member countries could maintain and satisfactorily operate their national components of the system and benefit from them in a sustainable and self reliant manner; Permit the availability and accessibility of data in the context of Resolution 40 of the Twelfth World Meteorological Congress, including data for operational research and educational purposes. 5 6:  New Composite Observing System Initial components are expected to include: A slightly reduced network of radiosonde stations that will be based on the use of GPS and improved temperature and moisture sensors; A significantly improved automated aircraft reporting scheme that includes observations from both cruises level as well as on ascent and descent; An increase in high resolution observations, particularly in the lower troposphere from radars, wind profilers, and other ground-based remote sensing systems; A new capability that will provide for the use of sounding data from the existing generation of meteorological satellites, particularly over land areas, increased operational use of data from R&D satellites, as well as a new generation of instruments of higher resolution and precision; An enhanced system of surface-based and satellite measurements of chemical constituents, such as greenhouse gases, aerosols and ozone, as a part of the Global Atmosphere Watch.  6 7:  7 8:  8 9:  9 10:  10 11:  11 12:  12 13:  13 14:  THORPEX: Schematic end-to end forecast system 14 15:  ESTIMATED GAW GLOBAL OZONESONDE NETWORK: 2003 Stations with data submitted since at least 1 Jan 1999 15 16:  16 17:  World Hydrological Cycle Observing System WHYCOS A system for building the capacity of water resources management at the national, river basin, regional and global levels A system that aims at promoting cooperation in the collection, transmission, processing, archiving and use of hydrological data and information 17 18:  WHYCOS: Projects status Implemented projects (external funding ended) MED-HYCOS, SADC-HYCOS (ph. 1) AOC-HYCOS (pilot) Projects under implementation Niger-HYCOS, Volta-HYCOS, SADC-HYCOS (ph. 2) Advanced development stage Carib-HYCOS and IGAD-HYCOS Preparatory stage for implementation HKH-HYCOS, Mekong-HYCOS, Aral-HYCOS, Baltic-HYCOS, Pacific-HYCOS Conceptual stage Nile-HYCOS, Amazon-HYCOS, Arctic-HYCOS, Black Sea- HYCOS, Caspian-HYCOS, Danube-HYCOS, La Plata-HYCOS, Victoria-HYCOS Under consideration Lake Chad-HYCOS, Senegal -HYCOS 18 19:  CBS Initiative Implementation Plan for Evolution of the GOS up to 2015 Comprises 47 recommendations related to the development of the surface- and space-based subsystems of the GOS 19 20:  The following recommendations should be taken into account when addressing the evolution of the GOS in Developing Countries:          Define geographical areas using advanced techniques to help identify where priority should be if additional funding was available;          Encourage regional associations in concert with CBS to define trial field experiments over data sparse areas, for a limited time, to evaluate how additional data would contribute to improve performance at the regional and global scale. A clearly demonstrated impact might make it easier to agree on some coordinated funding mechanism for areas concerned including funding from GEF (Global Environmental Facilities) for climate stations;             20 21:  The evolution of the GOS in Developing Countries Examine whether automated stations could become a viable, cost effective alternative to manned stations for the surface network in the future; In data-sparse areas of the world, it may be more cost-effective to make full use of AMDAR ascent/descent data at major airports; however the RAOB network still plays an important role in human forecasting; 21 22:  Evolution of the GOS in Developing Countries When changes are made to the climate observing systems, the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles should be followed; The telecommunication problems should be referred to the OPAG on ISS and looked at as a priority; Prioritise where the needs are most pressing for VCP or other funding. High priority should be given by the region and secretariat to maintain a minimum RAOB network with acceptable performance within data challenged regions.         22 23:  Activities&Challenges be undertaken to reach the goals of the new Composite Observing System Ensure a coordinated approach among WMO Member countries; Further development of partnership with airline and shipping industries; Ensure continuation of polar orbiting and geostationary operational and R&D satellites; Continuation and enhancement of Donor countries involvement in meeting the observational requirements of developing countries; Improved data assimilation techniques to ensure integration of all observing elements for use in NWP models. 23 24:  24

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