1 Performance

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Information about 1 Performance

Published on October 7, 2007

Author: Goldye



Introductions:  Introductions Day 1: Performance and Monitoring Li Xinman, TEIN2 NOC & CERNET NOC, PhD Day 2: Troubleshooting Li Pengfei, CERNET NOC, CCIE Day 3: Emergency Response Wang Yan, CERNET NOC, CCIE Performance & Monitoring:  Performance & Monitoring Li Xinman TEIN2 NOC, CERNET NOC Sept.4-8, 2006 AIT, Thailand Agenda:  Agenda Introduction to Performance Management TEIN2 NOC updates and NMS Performance Monitoring technologies and tools Netflow and applications Case Study Functions of Network Management:  Functions of Network Management Fault management Network state monitoring Failure logging, reporting and tracking etc. Configuration management device and software configuration version control (compare, apply and rollback, backup) etc. Accounting management billing and traffic measurement etc. Performance management Security Management Access control, worm/attack detection and alert etc. Performance Management-Why:  Performance Management-Why Why needed and important? Capacity planning when do we need to upgrade our link and device? Ensure network availability Verify network performance, verify QoS (we expected) Ensure SLA compliance (customer expected) Better understanding and control of network Optimization, make the network runs better! Murphy’s Law (also why need NOC?) If Anything can go wrong, it will. left to themselves, things tend to go from bad to worse. (The network can’t look after itself. That’s nice for us ) Proactive or reactive? Know problem before users and boss Solve the problem before their complain Or Wait for problem to happen, and customers complain? As a NOC, we should be proactive, NOC means NO Complain! Performance Management-What:  Performance Management-What What’s performance management? understanding the behavior of a network and its elements in response to traffic demands Measuring and reporting of network performance to ensure that performance is maintained at a acceptable level Performance Management-How:  Performance Management-How How to measure the network performance Delay, jitter, packet loss, bandwidth usage etc. The steps and process of performance management: Data collection Baseline the network Determining the threshold for acceptable performance Tunning Technologies and tools needed Data collection technologies such as: sniffing & netflow QoS Tools: ping, mrtg, iperf, wget, etc. Delay (Latency):  Delay (Latency) Delay = propagation delay + serialization delay Propagation delay: the time it takes to the physical signal to traverse the path; depends on distance. (add 6 ms for 1000km Fibre link) The delay from Beijing to Guanzhou is about 34 ms (CERNET), the distance is about 3000Km. Serialization delay is the time it takes to actually transmit the packet; caused by intermediate networking devices, includes queuing, processing and switching time (normally, less than 1ms for one networking devices, but not firewalls or heavily loaded routers) Comfortable human-to-human audio is only possible for round-trip delays not greater than 100ms Tools: ping, traceroute etc. Jitter:  Jitter is the variation of the delay, a.k.a the 'latency variance,' can happen because: variable queue length generates variable latencies Load balancing with unequal latency In general, higher levels of jitter are more likely to occur on either slow or heavily congested links. It is expected that the increasing use of “QoS” control mechanisms such as class based queuing, bandwidth reservation and of higher speed links such as 100M Ethernet Harmless for many applications but real-time applications as voice and video Applications will need jitter buffer to make it smoothly Tolerable Jitter range for VOIP is: 20ms – 30ms Tools: ping etc. J1 = abs(t2-t1), J2=abs(t3-t2), …. Packet Loss:  Packet Loss Loss of one or more packets, can happen because ... Link or hardware caused CRC error Link is congested or queue is full (tail drop or even RED/WRED) route change (temporary drop) or blackhole route (persistent drop) Interface or router down Misconfigured access-list ... 1% packet loss is terrible and unusable! Tools: ping etc. Bandwidth Utilization:  Bandwidth Utilization Capacity plan: decide when to upgrade the link, but maybe investment depended Better less than 35% (and commercial ISPs do) For CERNET, most links are above 70%, some above 95%, in our theory, for E&R networks, 70% is acceptable For TEIN2 now, most links are below 15% !! Tools: MRTG, SNMP tools, telnet etc. Network Availability:  Network Availability is the metric used to determine uptime and downtime Availability = (uptime)/(total time) = 1-(downtime)/(total time) Network availability is the IP layer reachability Better > 99.9% 99.9% 30x24x60x0.1%=43.3 (Minutes), means the down time should be less than 45 minutes in one month 99.99% 30x24x60x0.01%=4.3 (Minutes), means the down time should be less than 5 minutes in one month! 99.9% is acceptable for R&E networks (Even 99.0% is acceptable), some commercial ISPs can reach 99.99% The network devices should be 99.999% available or as specified, but it’s not the truth even the top venders Packets Per Second (PPS):  Packets Per Second (PPS) Important for performance: network performance is highly affected by PPS, such as delay or packet loss, because the serialization delay will increase because of the load of the intermediate routers PPS is a very important metric to detect DOS/DDOS traffic E.g. normally, the pps of one GE link is about 100,000 (baseline), if raised to 200,000 pps sharply, then it means DOS. Easy to get: show interface CPU and Memory Utilization:  CPU and Memory Utilization We focus on routers CPU utilization better less than 30% For global routing routers, at least 512M memory is needed QoS:  QoS QoS: Quality Of Service QoS is technology to manage network performance QoS is a set of performance measurements Delay, Jitter, packet loss, availability, bandwidth utilization etc. IP QoS: QoS for IP service QoS Architecture:  QoS Architecture Best Effort IntServ End to end, session state needed RSVP CPU and Memory intensive Difficult to deploy Not scalable DiffServ PHB: Per-Hop-Behavior, Not end-to-end Scalable Easy to deploy What is using now: DiffServ + IP, DiffServ + MPLS If network bandwidth is enough, there is no need for QoS? QoS Practice: Traffic Shaping (rate-limit):  QoS Practice: Traffic Shaping (rate-limit) 40Mbps for all outbound traffic interface FastEthernet2/0 rate-limit output 40000000 400000 400000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop 40Mbps for specific traffic through ACL interface FastEthernet2/0 rate-limit output access-list 110 40000000 400000 400000 conform-action transmit exceed-action drop access-list 110 deny tcp any any eq www access-list 110 deny tcp any eq www any Access-list 110 permit ip any any QoS Practice: Modular QoS Command:  QoS Practice: Modular QoS Command Classify the traffic, definition of traffic class-map match-any limit-campus match access-group 170 2) Define the traffic policy policy-map limit-30M class limit-campus police 30000000 30000 30000 conform-action transmit 3) Apply the traffic policy interface GigabitEthernet5/2 service-policy input limit-34M service-policy output limit-34M Traffic classification example:  Traffic classification example SLA and QoS:  SLA and QoS SLA: Service Level Agreement SLA is the agreement between service provider and customer, SLA defines the quality of the service the service provider delivered, such as delay, jitter, packet loss etc. SLA is a very important part of the business contract, and also can be used to distinguish the service level of different ISPs Business SLA Technology QoS SLA example: Level 3:  SLA example: Level 3 Delay Packet Loss Availability Jitter Bandwidth SLA example: Sprintlink:  SLA example: Sprintlink Measurement Technology:  Measurement Technology We’ve known what metrics used to describe network performance, but how to measure them? Technologies and tools ping, traceroute, telnet and CLI commands etc. SNMP Netflow (Cisco), Sflow (Juniper), NetStream (Huawei) IP SLA (Cisco) Etc. ping:  ping Normally used as a troubleshooting tool Uses ICMP Echo messages to determine: Whether a remote device is active (for trouble shooting) round trip time delay (RTT), but not one-way delay Packet loss Sometime we need to specify the source and length of packet using extended ping in router or host Why using large packet when ping? (to test the link quality and throughput.) Large packet ping is prohibited in Windows, but Linux is ok Sample Ping:  Sample Ping Freebsd>% ping PING ( 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=253 time=0.326 ms …… 64 bytes from icmp_seq=6 ttl=253 time=0.288 ms 6 packets transmitted, 6 received, 0% packet loss, time 4996ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.239/0.284/0.326/0.025 ms router# ping Protocol [ip]: Target IP address: Repeat count [5]: Datagram size [100]: 3000 Timeout in seconds [2]: Extended commands [n]: Sweep range of sizes [n]: Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 3000-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/4 ms traceroute:  traceroute Can be used to measure the RTT delay, and also the delay between the routers along the path Unix/linux traceroute uses UDP datagram with different TTL to discover the route a packet take to the destination, Microsoft Windows tracert uses ICMP protocol, If Windows tracert appears to show continuous timeouts, the router may be filtering ICMP traffic – try a Unix/Linux traceroute After the Nachi worm, many ISPs filter ICMP traffic. So ping can not work, but traceroute is ok H1 router1 router2 router3 2ms 15ms 2ms 19ms Sample Traceroute:  Sample Traceroute Router# traceroute Type escape sequence to abort. Tracing the route to 1 0 msec 0 msec 0 msec 2 20 msec 20 msec 16 msec 3 28 msec 28 msec 24 msec 4 24 msec * 24 msec Visual Route:  Visual Route Visualization of traceroute information telnet and CLI commands:  telnet and CLI commands Using telnet manually or scripts programmed with Expect to telnet the network device then issue the CLI commands is also a useful and basic monitoring method to get performance data It’s necessary because some data can only be accessed through CLI commands, and not supported by SNMP etc. How about config file? Show interface:  Show interface Bandwidth utilization information, PPS etc Examples show interface GigaEthernet2/24 GigabitEthernet2/24 is up, line protocol is up (connected) Description: to-tein2-xing-20060119 Internet address is MTU 9216 bytes, BW 1000000 Kbit, DLY 10 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 33/255, rxload 14/255 Input queue: 0/75/1/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 55010000 bits/sec, 17367 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 133299000 bits/sec, 18476 packets/sec L2 Switched: ucast: 235554 pkt, 32942922 bytes - mcast: 44728 pkt, 4631058 bytes L3 in Switched: ucast: 7786262800 pkt, 2957731471301 bytes - mcast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes mcast L3 out Switched: ucast: 8883546304 pkt, 7850287572491 bytes mcast: 0 pkt, 0 bytes ...... It’s better not to change the bandwidth setting (even for ospf metric) 13% and 5.5% Show process cpu/mem:  Show process cpu/mem Measure the usage of CPU and memory router1>sh proc cpu CPU utilization for five seconds: 2%/0%; one minute: 5%; five minutes: 5% PID Runtime(ms) Invoked uSecs 5Sec 1Min 5Min TTY Process 1 8 91 87 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 Chunk Manager 2 5876 4393609 1 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 Load Meter 3 1400 200869 6 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 BGP Open 4 0 1 0 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0 EE48 TCAM Carve 5 50811784 2895942 17545 0.00% 0.25% 0.22% 0 Check heaps .... Sometime, the CPU usage of the processes ‘IP input’ and ‘BGP Scanner’ will be very high Remember don’t run out the telnet session number! Else you will be keep out of the router. SNMP:  SNMP SNMP is a Internet standard management framework that provides facilities for managing and monitoring network resources on the Internet Components of SNMP MIB: managed information base SNMP Agent: software runs on network device to maintain MIB SNMP manager: application program contacts agent to query or modify the MIB at agent SNMP Protocol: is the application layer protocol used by SNMP agents and managers to send and receive data, the data is encoded in BER SMI: Structure and Syntax of Management Information, standard defines how to create a MIB SNMP Architecture:  SNMP Architecture MIBs:  MIBs A MIB specifies the managed objects MIB is a text file that describes managed objects using the syntax of ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation 1) ASN.1 is a formal language for describing data and its properties In Linux, MIB files are in the directory /usr/share/snmp/mibs Multiple MIB files RFC1213-MIB.txt, MIB-II (defined in RFC 1213) defines the managed objects of TCP/IP networks Managed Objects:  Managed Objects Each managed object is assigned an object identifier (OID) The OID is specified in a MIB file. An OID can be represented as a sequence of integers separated by decimal points or by a text string: Example: (looks like IPv6 address? ) When a SNMP manager requests an object, it sends the OID to the SNMP agent. Organization of Managed Objects:  Organization of Managed Objects Managed objects are organized in a tree-like hierarchy and the OIDs reflect the structure of the hierarchy. Each OID represents a node in the tree. The OID ( is at the top of the hierarchy for all managed objects of the MIB-II. Manufacturers of networking equipment can add product specific objects to the hierarchy. Definition of Managed Object in a MIB:  Definition of Managed Object in a MIB OBJECT-TYPE String that describes the MIB object. Object Identifier (OID) SYNTAX Defines what kind of info is stored in the MIB object ACCESS READ-ONLY, READ-WRITE STATUS State of object in regards the SNMP community DESCRIPTION Reason why the MIB object exists Standard MIB Object: sysUpTime OBJECT-TYPE SYNTAX Time-Ticks ACCESS read-only STATUS mandatory DESCRIPTION “Time since the network management portion of the system was last re-initialised.” ::= {system 3} IF-MIB (64-bit counters):  IF-MIB (64-bit counters) SNMP Protocol:  SNMP Protocol C/S based, Client Pull and Server Push Ports: UDP 161(snmp messages), UDP 162(trap messages) SNMP manager and an SNMP agent communicate using the SNMP protocol Generally: Manager sends queries and agent responds Exception: Traps are initiated by agent. SNMP Functions:  SNMP Functions Get-request. Requests the values of one or more objects Get-next-request. Requests the value of the next object, according to a lexicographical ordering of OIDs. Set-request. A request to modify the value of one or more objects Get-response. Sent by SNMP agent in response to a get-request, get-next-request, or set-request message. Trap. An SNMP trap is a notification sent by an SNMP agent to an SNMP manager, which is triggered by certain events at the agent Traps:  Traps Traps are triggered by an event Defined traps include: linkDown: Even that an interface went down coldStart - unexpected restart (i.e., system crash) warmStart - soft reboot linkUp - the opposite of linkDown (SNMP) AuthenticationFailure … Traps can be received by a management application, and handled in several ways: logging, paging, alerting, or completely ignore  SNMP Versions:  SNMP Versions Three versions are in use today: SNMPv1 (1990) SNMPv2c (1996) Adds “GetBulk” function and some new data types (such as 64 bit counters) Adds RMON (remote monitoring) capability The only version endorsed by IETF but not others as SNMPv2u and SNMPv2* with security features. SNMPv3 (2002) SNMPv3 started from SNMPv1 (and not SNMPv2c) Addresses security All versions are still used today, but version 1&2 are most commonly used, don’t bother version 3 if not necessary Many SNMP agents and managers support all three versions of the protocol SNMP Community Strings:  SNMP Community Strings Like passwords Two kinds: READ-ONLY: You can send out a Get & GetNext to the SNMP agent, and if the agent is using the same read-only string it will process the request. READ-WRITE: Get, GetNext, and Set. If a MIB object has an ACCESS value of read-write, then a Set PDU can change the value of that object with the correct read-write community string. Default community string: public (read), private (write) Keep the R/W community string secret ! In the fact, RW comnunity is not so necessary! SNMP Security:  SNMP Security SNMPv1 uses plain text community strings for authentication as plain text without encryption SNMPv2 was supposed to fix security problems, but effort de-railed (The “c” in SNMPv2c stands for “community”). SNMPv3 has numerous security features: Integrity, authentication and privacy Instead of granting access rights to a community, SNMPv3 grants access to users Access can be restricted to sections of the MIB (View based Access Control Module (VACM). Access rights can be limited by specifying a range of valid IP addresses for a user or community, or by specifying the part of the MIB tree that can be accessed SNMP Configuration:  SNMP Configuration Configuring SNMP access snmp-server community notpublic ro snmp-server community topsecret rw 60 access-list 60 permit access-list 60 permit Configuring Traps snmp-server host public snmp-server enable traps snmp-server enable traps bgp snmp-server enable traps snmp bgp snmp-server trap-source loopback 0 About View (for security) Snmp-server view testview included (mib-2) Snmp-server view testview included (cisco) Snmp-server community test1 testview ro 60 ifIndex – Interface Name?:  ifIndex – Interface Name? Ifindex is the unique value to identify interface of a router show snmp mib ifmib ifindex interface to show the ifindex of interfaces, e.g. (router)#sh snmp mib ifmib ifindex pos9/0 Interface = POS9/0, Ifindex = 28 Or snmpwalk? Most management software using ifIndex for data collection and monitoring, such as MRTG, for SNMP, it’s a part of an OID But it will change after router reboot snmp-server ifindex persist Keep from changing when reboot System MIB (MIB-II):  System MIB (MIB-II) . . . . . . MIB instances:  MIB instances Each MIB can have an instance, some will have more A MIB for a router’s (entity) interface information: iso(1) org(3) dod(6) internet(1) mgmt(2) mib-2(1) interfaces(2) ifTable(2) ifEntry(1) Require one ifEntry value per interface (e.g. 3) One MIB object definition can represent multiple instances through Tables, Entries, and Indexes ifType(3) Index #2 Index #3 Index #1 ifMtu(4) Etc… ifType.3:[15] ifType.2:[9] ifType.1[6] ifMtu.1 ifMtu.2 ifMtu.3 ENTRY + INDEX = INSTANCE SNMP Operation: snmpget:  SNMP Operation: snmpget Example 1: MIB: Results: $ snmpget -v 1 test888 . system.sysDescr.0 = Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T3, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) TAC Support: Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Sun 22-Dec-02 02:49 by ccai Exmple 2: MIB: Results: $ snmpget -v 2c test888 . system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (494755800) 57 days, 6:19:18.00 SNMP Operation: snmpset:  SNMP Operation: snmpset MIB Operation $ snmpget -v 1 write888 . system.sysContact.0 = test $ snmpset -v 1 write888 . s "CERNET NOC" system.sysContact.0 = CERNET NOC $ snmpget -v 1 write888 . system.sysContact.0 = CERNET NOC SNMP Operation: snmpwalk:  SNMP Operation: snmpwalk MIB Operation $ snmpwalk -v 2c test888 . system.sysDescr.0 = Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T3, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) TAC Support: Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Sun 22-Dec-02 02:49 by ccai system.sysObjectID.0 = OID: enterprises.9.1.208 system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (494811433) 57 days, 6:28:34.33 system.sysContact.0 = "CERNET NOC, 86-10-62784048" system.sysName.0 = cernoclab system.sysLocation.0 = "THU Main Building Room306" system.sysServices.0 = 78 system.sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (0) 0:00:00.00 SNMP Operation: snmpbulkget:  SNMP Operation: snmpbulkget MIB Operation $ snmpbulkget -v 2c -B 0 10 test888 . system.sysDescr.0 = Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 12.2(11)T3, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc2) TAC Support: Copyright (c) 1986-2002 by cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Sun 22-Dec-02 02:49 by ccai system.sysObjectID.0 = OID: enterprises.9.1.208 system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (494914259) 57 days, 6:45:42.59 system.sysContact.0 = CERNET NOC system.sysName.0 = cernoclab system.sysLocation.0 = "THU Main Building Room306" system.sysServices.0 = 78 system.sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (0) 0:00:00.00 interfaces.ifNumber.0 = 3 interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.1 = 1 Interface MIB (MIB-II, 32bit counters):  Interface MIB (MIB-II, 32bit counters) .ifNumber .ifTable .ifTable.ifEntry .ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr .ifTable.ifEntry.ifInOctets .ifTable.ifEntry.ifOutOctets Interface MIB (MIB-II) Operation:  Interface MIB (MIB-II) Operation $ snmpget -v 2c test888 . interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = FastEthernet0/0 $ snmpget -v 2c test888 . interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifInOctets.1 = Counter32: 2984051368 $ snmpget -v 2c test888 . interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifOutOctets.1 = Counter32: 490955885 Cisco Interface MIB:  Cisco Interface MIB . . .locIfHardType . .locIfDescr . .locIfInBitsSec . .locIfInBitsPktsSec . .locIfOutBitsSec . .locIfOutpktsSec Cisco Interface MIB Operation:  Cisco Interface MIB Operation Operation $ snmpget -v 2c 202.112.xx.xx public . enterprises. = "bj-a1 to bj1 10G" $ snmpget -v 2c 202.112.xx.xx public . enterprises. = "C6k 10000Mb 802.3" $ snmpget -v 2c 202.112.xx.xx public . enterprises. = 1179992000 $ snmpget -v 2c 202.112.xx.xx public . enterprises. = 1835180000 Show interface bj-a1-bgw#sh int te7/3 TenGigabitEthernet7/3 is up, line protocol is up (connected) Hardware is C6k 10000Mb 802.3, address is 0014.a9f7.be80 (bia 0014.a9f7.be80) Description: bj-a1 to bj1 10G 5 minute input rate 1177610000 bits/sec, 327712 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 1835759000 bits/sec, 358057 packets/sec RMON:  RMON Remote Monitoring Specification: provides standard information that a network administrator can use to monitor, analyze, and troubleshoot a group of distributed local area networks (LANs) and interconnecting lines from a central site RMON is for traffic management specified as part of the MIB and an extension of SNMP the latest level is RMON Version 2 (referred to as "RMON 2" or "RMON2") RMON can be supported by hardware monitoring devices (known as "probes") or through software or some combination Diagram of RMON MIB:  Diagram of RMON MIB MIB 1&2 MIB 1 MIB 2 Root ISO Org DoD Internet Mgmt Private RMON1 RMON2 RMON RMON MIB Groups:  RMON MIB Groups Statistics - Traffic and error rates on a segment History - Above statistics with a time stamp Alarm - User defined threshold alarms on any RMON variable Hosts - Traffic and error rates for each host by MAC address Host Top N - Sorts hosts by top traffic and/or error rates Matrix - Conversation matrix between hosts Filter - Definition of what packet types to capture and store Packet Capture - Creates a capture buffer on the probe that can be requested and decoded by the management application Event - Generates log entries and/or SNMP traps Token Ring - Token Ring extensions, most complex group RMON2:  RMON2 RMON RMON2 Physical Data Link Network Transport Application Session Presentation RMON2 is standard for monitoring higher protocol layers. SNMP Tools:  SNMP Tools CLI Commands Snmpget, snmpset, snmpwalk, snmpbulk, etc MIB Browser iReasoning, solarwinds etc Large Applications: Network Management System HP OpenView IBM Tivoli (netview) Sun NetManager Etc. Commercial SNMP Applications:  Commercial SNMP Applications HP OpenView IBM NetView Novell ManageWise Sun MicroSystems Solstice Microsoft SMS Server Compaq Insight Manger SnmpQL - ODBC Compliant Empire Technologies Cinco Networks NetXray SNMP Collector (Win9X/NT) Observer Gordian’s SNMP Agent Castle Rock Computing Advent Network Management SimpleAgent, SimpleTester SNMP Tools-GUI (MIB Browser):  SNMP Tools-GUI (MIB Browser) MRTG:  MRTG The Multi Router Traffic Grapher: a freeware written in Perl, works on unix/linux, graph data collected from routers and other devices or applications based on SNMP. One of most popular network monitoring tools used today: to monitoring the bandwidth utilization of network link SNMP v2c support, no more counter wrapping Configuration of MRTG:  Configuration of MRTG cfgmaker to generate a configuration file and tune cfgmaker public@ | tee test.cfg Setting up crontab in (/etc/crontab), runs every 5 minutes */5 * * * * wang /usr/bin/mrtg /home/wang/mrtg/test1.cfg Two basic object types in MRTG Counter: object that returns an unsigned integer that grows over time Gauge: A gauge integer will go up an down according the variable it tracks Options[_]: gauge, growright Enable snmpv2c: Target[]: 28:test888@ Version 1 (default) Target[]: 28:test888@ Version 2c MRTG Example:  MRTG Example Bandwidth Utilization Monitoring:  Bandwidth Utilization Monitoring Delay & Packet Loss:  Delay & Packet Loss IPerf:  IPerf Client/server application that Measures maximum TCP performance Facilitates tuning of TCP and UDP parameters Reports bandwidth, jitter, and packet loss Performance Management Process:  Performance Management Process Monitoring Baseline Detection Optimization Performance management Performance Matrix:  Performance Matrix Traffix Matrix Delay Matrix Packet Loss Matrix ……. Distributed Backbone Performance Monitoring Architecture:  Distributed Backbone Performance Monitoring Architecture Management Console Performance data collection agents in infrastructure …… Data Collection Agent:  Data Collection Agent Routers? Embedded: If the router is strong enough, it’s ok Dedicated routers: Shadow Router Cisco 26xx/28xx is enough Steady and easy to deploy Mature software solutions Servers? Embedded: If the load of the server is not heavy, it’s good Dedicated Servers: Test Server Flexible: monitoring anything as you like Easy: Free tools is quite enough Ping, traceroute, iperf, wget, beacon etc. Low Cost: a normal 1U PC server is not as expensive as a router Cisco Performance Measure Technology:  Cisco Performance Measure Technology Introduction of IP SLA:  Introduction of IP SLA Allow users to monitor network performance between Cisco routers or from either a Cisco router to a remote IP device. Embedded within Cisco IOS software and there is no additional device to deploy, learn, or manage. A dependable, a scalable, cost-effective solution for network performance measurement. Collect network performance information in real time: response time, one-way latency, jitter, packet loss, voice quality measurement, and other network statistics. Multi-Protocol Measurement and Management with Cisco IOS IP SLAs:  Multi-Protocol Measurement and Management with Cisco IOS IP SLAs CERNET: Data Collection Agents Distribution:  CERNET: Data Collection Agents Distribution Agent PoP Agent PoP Agent PoP Agent National Center Console Server …… Core Access Core Access Core Access Access Core Tools and Technologies Used:  Tools and Technologies Used Ping Traceroute Snmp telnet FreeBSD Perl Rrdtools, GD Multicast beacon Iperf Etc. Performance Metric Example: Packet Loss:  Performance Metric Example: Packet Loss Performance Metric Example: Delay:  Performance Metric Example: Delay Performance Metric Example: Multicast:  Performance Metric Example: Multicast Thank You!:  Thank You! Some materials are from network, thanks goes to the authors!

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