1 Percent Group PowerPoint Presentation

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Published on April 26, 2014

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PowerPoint Presentation: Various recent studies on the topics surrounding organic foods have centered around a few central points of discussion for the relevancy of organic foods: health benefits, availability, and the general characteristics of organic food consumers. This review of twelve relevant articles and book chapters examines some of the facets of organic food and its consumption in order to answer the question of whether or not markets offering organic food options would be more desirable than those with more traditional selections. Method Discussion Organic Food Supermarkets vs. Traditional Grocery Stores Daniela Vaca, Leslie Miranda, Christine Kuo, Sean Sullivan Azusa Pacific University References Literature Review Results The participants in this study ranged from a wide variety of family and friends from all ethnic backgrounds, both male/female, and ages ranged from 18-60. Chart I Put a thumbnail version of your second chart here, along with a brief title. You will put the larger version on its own ppt slide after the Results section The results from the statement, “ I will spend more on groceries to ensure they are organic. ” The largest response category was for disagree, which garnered 10 (40%) participants, while 9 (36%) agreed, 2 (8%) strongly agreed and 4 (16%) remained neutral. (M=2.9, SD=1.1). Chart II Our results did not confirm our hypothesis that people prefer organic food supermarkets more than traditional grocery stores. The results indicated that more people prefer traditional grocery stores or they do not have a preference by stating that they are neutral. Dahm , M.J., Samonte , A.V., & Shows, A.M. (2009). Organic foods: Do eco-friendly attitudes predict eco-friendly behaviors? Journal of American College Health, 58 (3), 195-202. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review By Christine Kuo Various recent studies on the topics surrounding organic foods have centered around a few central points of discussion for the relevancy of organic foods: health benefits, availability, and the general characteristics of organic food consumers. This review of twelve relevant articles and book chapters examines some of the facets of organic food and its consumption in order to answer the question of whether or not markets offering organic food options would be more desirable than those with more traditional selections. The idea of organic foods as healthier than their conventional counterparts is well-cited, providing such benefits as a 94% reduction in health risks, increased IQ, and increased resistance to the effects of stress (Laliberte, Fox, Holland, 2013). A large-scale study of pregnant women in Norway likewise found that those who consumed a greater amount of organic food in general kept diets that were on average higher in dietary fibers, essential nutrients, and vitamins (Torjuse, Leiblein, Naes, Haugen, Meltzer, Branstaeter, 2012). However, to therefore conclude that the consumption of organic foods automatically contributes to increased health is to discount many significant confounds and contributing factors that heavily influence this overall statistic. While organic foods do contain slightly higher levels of nutrients than do conventional foods (Crinnion, 2010), perhaps the greatest influence on organic foods' health benefits is the absence of pesticides commonly used in conventional foods (Laliberte et al, 2013; Crinnion, 2010). Accounting for everything from low birth IQ to as much as a 55% increase in rates of diagnosed ADHD in children, the pesticides found in conventional foods often contain harmful amounts of toxins that can have long-term personal as well as inter-generational effects (Laliberte et al, 2013). It is likely that the lack of pesticide exposure, more than the inherent nutritional value of the foods, is what augments its perceived health benefits. PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review Also often unaccounted-for in most organic food studies is the distribution of test subjects across the social-economic spectrum. The confounding correlation exists that those families who are more likely to be able to afford organic foods long term are also those more likely to afford healthier food and dietary habits in general, leading to a skewed statistic on the health of the individual as an indicator of the health benefits of organic food without adjusting for financial restrictions (Torjuse et al, 2012). Likewise, families who consume larger quantities of organic foods also tend to be better-educated, similarly suggesting that social-economic status – and the financial availability for said education - play a large role in the consumption of organic products, again lending to the conclusion that organic foods are not, in themselves, healthier than their conventional counterparts (Beresford, Curl, Hajat, Kaufman, Moor, Nettleton, Diez-Roux, 2013). Included in the discussion of the availability of organic foods are the topics of physical and financial availability for said foods. A study of trends in US organic food markets shows a rise in the number of organic food stores in recent years (Dimitri & Greene, 2002), suggesting a corresponding demand for a greater availability of organic food (Willer & Kilcher, 2009). Indeed, due to increased demand, college campuses have begun changing their on-site menu options to appeal to a growing population of students' organic preferences, and students have likewise begun factoring in the availability of organic meal options in their selection of colleges (Dahm, Samonte, Shows, 2009), displaying in one instance among many the increasing physical accessibility of organic foods. However, with the expansion of the organic market, especially in the US, comes the increasing price premium, ensuring therefore a sustained financial inaccessibility to organic foods for those without the means with which to obtain it (Oberholtzer, Dimitri, Greene, 2005).     PowerPoint Presentation: Literature Review Finally, to better understand the target audience of organic foods, studies and surveys have found the largest subset of organic food consumers to be middle-aged women with children, though the market has begun expanding towards younger people, particularly the college-aged populations (Dahm et al, 2009). A study of French adults showed that organic food consumers also tended to be more physically active, more highly-educated, and tended to have a lower probability of being overweight, with their diets more closely adhering to recommended nutritional guidelines compared to those who were not interested in organic foods (Kesse-Guyot, Peneau, Mejean, Szabo de Edelenyi, Galan, Hercberg, Lairon, 2013). Along with healthier eating habits, consumers of organic foods have also shown greater concern regarding other aspects of “ green ” behavior, such as the ethical and humane treatment of animals, to the extent that they would base their dietary decisions on the treatment of animals before their death (Sutherland, Sutherland, Webster, 2013). This may offer another interesting confounding variable to the study, in hypothesizing that people who prefer to shop at stores with organic foods instead of conventional foods may also be doing so not for the benefit of the organic foods themselves, but out of ulterior motives, such as supporting the welfare of animals. This is especially true if organic food stores are also offering such programs as donating a percentage of proceeds to charities or other philantrophic organizations. In conclusion, the literature appears to support the research hypothesis that overall, grocery stores that offer organic foods tend to be more desirable than those that do not. However, the reasons for this preference have not been strictly identified. This literature review attempted to explore several possible areas that contribute to the choice of organic food versus conventional food, and discovered that far from containing a single distinguishing variable, many confounds, from the lack of pesticides, to the health benefits of the foods themselves, to its cost and the average socio-economic status and behavioral characteristics of consumers all factor into the equation. Therefore, while current research has determined the preference of organic food over conventional food, further study on each specific variable might be necessary to begin to better answer the question of why. PowerPoint Presentation: Method By Leslie Miranda Participants Because the researchers in this study wanted to know whether people prefer organic food supermarkets vs. the all around traditional grocery stores, they attempted to collect their data from a wide variety of family and friends. The participants in this study were from all ethnic backgrounds, were both male/female, and ages ranged from 18-60. Researchers notified the participants regarding the basis of the study via email and were given the option to withdraw from the study at any given point. Out of all the individuals that were asked to complete the survey, 25 chose to participate. Instruments The instruments used throughout the duration of the research project began with the use of the Sakai webpage for Azusa Pacific University ’ s Methodology course, where the researchers received direction and information on how to conduct a research study. In addition, they were given assignments and activities that helped the researchers become better equipped to conduct and ask questions regarding their research project. Once the researchers became knowledgeable on what a research study entailed, they all agreed upon a research topic and came up with a 10-item questionnaire that consisted of 8 quantitative questions and 2 qualitative questions via www.surveymonkey.com. All 10 questions addressed different aspects of preferring organic food supermarkets vs. traditional grocery stores. Survey Monkey was an excellent tool that helped researchers create the survey for distribution. Once distributed, participants were given a two-week window period to complete the survey. As mentioned previously, participants were able to opt out at any point; however, once completed, they weren ’ t able to go back and re-take the survey. During this time frame, researchers were able to monitor the survey, as well as collect and analyze the data once the survey was completed.     PowerPoint Presentation: Method Procedure The initial procedure to begin the process of conducting the research study was creating a hypothesis based on a topic of interest for the group as a whole. Once this was set in place, the researchers posted their hypothesis in the forums group section via Sakai for the professor ’ s approval. After approval, researchers developed a 10-item questionnaire, which addressed aspects of preferring organic food supermarkets vs. traditional grocery stores. Upon completion, the questionnaire was then submitted to Reyna Guzman who is a representative of the Office of Institutional Research (OIRA) for approval. In addition, Reyna Guzman provided the researchers with an approval header to include in the emails sent to every participant. Moreover, the emails included informed consent, a link to the survey (via SurveyMonkey), as well as information regarding opting out at any point. Lastly, after the two-week window period for participants to complete the survey, researchers were then able to collect and analyze the data for the results.   PowerPoint Presentation: Results By Sean Sullivan A total of 25 respondents completed the online survey. SurveyMonkey provided a summary of responses that allowed for an accurate analysis of results. The answers given by the 25 participants did not fully corroborate our hypothesis that people prefer to shop at grocery stores that have an organic selection as opposed to grocery stores that do not. The results did show many noteworthy things. Chart I shows the importance of organic food selection to our participants. Ten (42%) participants agreed with the statement, “ Having a good selection of organic foods where I shop for groceries is important to me. ” Of the twenty five answers, 3 (12%) disagreed with the statement and 8 (32%) were neutral. ( M=2.4, SD=.91) Chart II shows the results from the statement, “ I will spend more on groceries to ensure they are organic. ” The largest response category was for disagree, which garnered 10 (40%) participants, while 9 (36%) agreed, 2 (8%) strongly agreed and 4 (16%) remained neutral. (M=2.9, SD=1.1) There was more diversity of answers on this than the first chart discussed, as noted by the larger standard deviation. PowerPoint Presentation: Results The statement with the lowest standard deviation was, “ My income plays a significant role in my preference of where to purchase my groceries, ” (SD=.9) With 20 of the 25 participants either agreeing or strongly agreeing (M=2.0), it would appear that people are looking more for a better deal rather than an organic one. The responses to this question alone do not corroborate our hypothesis as it clearly points out that people do not prefer an organic selection over the traditional supermarket. On the final chart, Chart III, participants responded to the statement, “ I prefer traditional grocery stores over organic food markets. ” The majority of participants were either neutral or disagreed, as there were 8 (32%) for each answer. There were 7 (28%) participants who agreed and 2 (8%) who strongly agreed. (M=2.9, SD=.97) The first question of our survey asked the participants to respond to the statement, “ Organig foods are a significant part of my diet. ” 11 (44%) responded neutrally, while 6 (24%) disagreed, 5 (20%) agreed and 3 (12%) strongly agreed. (M=2.8, SD=.96) While this doesn ’ t necessarilly confirm our hypothesis, it does verify that having an organic selection is of some importance to people. Conversely, further debunking of our hypothesis occurred on the responses to our third statement, “ How much organic food I eat is influenced by where I shop for groceries. ” The majority of the responses were in agreement, 5 (20%) strongly agreeing and 11(44%) agreeing, while 3 (12%) were neutral and 6 (24%) disagreed. (M=2.9, SD=1.9) This would indicate that organic food purchasing is determined more by location than by dietary choice.   PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #1 PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #2 PowerPoint Presentation: Chart #3 PowerPoint Presentation: Table PowerPoint Presentation: Discussion By Daniela Vaca Our results did not confirm our hypothesis that people prefer organic food supermarkets more than traditional grocery stores. The results indicated that more people prefer traditional grocery stores or they do not have a preference by stating that they are neutral. On the other hand, our findings support previous research in that people are beginning to pay attention to be more conscience of having a selection of organic food at the grocery store where they shop as evidenced by the majority of respondents agreeing or strongly agreeing that it is important to them that an organic food selection exists where they shop. Furthermore, the responses to other questions in the survey indicate that there might be other factors that influence the reason why people consume organic food or choose super markets that sell organic foods. For instance, time, distance, and money seem to affect people's decisions to buy and consume organic foods. For example, the majority of respondents in the survey would not spend more time shopping to ensure that their food is organic. This suggests that there are variables that are more important to consumers than ensuring that they purchase organic products. Furthermore, although the study was effective at finding that there might be other factors that affect the consumption of organic foods, it failed to find the factors or variables that impact the stores where people shop, which was the main focus of the study. Further research should focus on the characteristics or variables that influence people ’ s decisions of where to shop for groceries. Another factor that affected the study was that many respondents provided a neutral response, indicating that they might not have a preference or their response is dependent on other factors. In the future, a forced choice answer might help to find the respondents ’ preferences about organic food and the markets where they choose to purchase their groceries. PowerPoint Presentation: Discussion Moreover, this study had some limitations. First, the consisted of only 25 respondent, who are friends and family members of the researchers of this study (four graduate students attending Azusa Pacific University). Consequently, the respondents might have answered favorably in order to please the researchers of the study. Additionally, because the sample is small and the respondents are very similar, it makes it difficult to generalize the results to other populations. Future studies should obtain a larger randomly selected sample of respondents to ensure that it is more representative of the general population, making it more applicable to the population at large. Because previous research indicates the importance and health benefits of consuming organic products (Laliberte et al., 2013), it is important that future research focuses on the variables that motivate people to purchase organic foods and the factors that hinder people ’ s abilities to find and purchase organic food. In addition, it is important that future research focuses on the way that grocery stories play a role in the consumption of organic products. Perhaps, traditional grocery stores can finds ways to promote their organic products in order to create a healthier society. PowerPoint Presentation: References By Daniela Vaca & Christine Kuo Beresford, A. A. S., Curl, L. C., Hajat, A., Kaufman, D. J., Moor, K., Nettleton, Diez-Roux, V. A. (2013). Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). PLoS ONE, 8 (7) . Crinnion, W. J. (2010). Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Alternative Medicine Review, 15 (1), 4-12. Dahm, M.J., Samonte, A.V., & Shows, A.M. (2009). Organic foods: Do eco-friendly attitudes predict eco-friendly behaviors? Journal of American College Health, 58 (3), 195-202. Dimitri, C. & Greene, C. (2002 ). Recent growth patterns in the U.S. organic foods market . Economic Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ers.usda.gov%2FersDownloadHandler.ashx%3Ffile%3D%2Fmedia%2F249063%2Faib777_1_.pdf&ei=8dkQU5zNI83ioATA-4LQCQ&usg=AFQjCNF2ctLHEFZ1lu7i_DGrY1t1Z6hTLQ&sig2=HYZCi6iKp8wQQD4XnQ-5Vw&bvm=bv.62286460,d.cGU&cad=rja Dimitri, C., Oberholtzer, L. (2009). Marketing US organic foods: Recent trends from farms to consumers. United States Department of Agriculture. PowerPoint Presentation: References Kesse-Guyot, E. , Sandrine, P. Mejean, C. Szavi de Edelenyie, F. , Galan P., Hercberg, S., & Lairon, D. (2013). Profiles of organic food consumers in a large sample of French adults: Results from the Nutrient- Sante cohort study. Plos One, 8 (10), 1-13. Kluger, J. (2010, August 30). What's so great about organic food? Time, 30-46. Laliberte, R., Squire, F., & Holland, J. (2013). Today ’ s special: 94% safer food! Prevention, 65 (9), 106-117. Oberholtzer, L., Dimitri, C., Greene, C. (2005). Price premiums hold on as U.S. organic produce market expands. United States Department of Agriculture. Sutherland, I., Sutherland, M. A., Webster, J. (2013). Animal health and welfare issues facing organic production systems. Animals. 2013, 3 (4), 1021-1035. Tarjusen, H., Lieblein, G., Naes, T. Haugen, M., Meltzer, H.M., & Brantsaeter, A. (2012). Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway. BMC Public Health, 12 (612), 1-13. Willer, H. & Kilcher, L. (Eds.) (2009). The world of organic agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends 2009 . FIBL-IFOAM Report.  

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