1 Introduction to Strategy

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Education

Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Carmela

Source: authorstream.com

Strategic Management:  Strategic Management An Introduction to Strategy Learning Outline:  Learning Outline What is strategic management? Why is strategic management important? Who is involved with strategic management? Strategic management today A definition of strategy:  A definition of strategy Goal-directed decisions and actions in which capabilities and resources are matched with the opportunities and threats in the environment. Military influences in strategy:  Military influences in strategy “Strategos” referred to a general in command of an army The art of the general By 450 B.C. it came to mean managerial skill By 330 B.C. it referred to the skill of employing forces to overcome positions to create a system of global governance Carl von Clausewitz “tactics…(involve) the use of armed forces in the engagement, strategy (is) the use of engagements for the object of war” 1838 On War Academic influences in strategy:  Academic influences in strategy 1911 Scientific management (Taylor) – Still in place today (UPS), some consider it micromanaging HBS requires a class in Business Policy in 1912 Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” (the market) gives way to Alfred Sloan (GM CEO from 1923-1946) concept of the “visible hand”—middle manager Chester Bernard influential book “The Executive” argues that managers should pay attention to “strategic factors” Ronald Coase’s 1937 article “why firms exist” (Nobel Prize in economics) and Joseph Schumpter’s concept of “disruptive technologies” written in 1942 bring in organizational economics Max Weber warns against bureaucratic organizations but sees a shift toward this way of organizing Recent influences in strategy:  Recent influences in strategy 1960s (Strategy and structure; Corporate Strategy) 1963 Harvard business conference leads to SWOT analysis BCG founded in 1963 “strategy boutique” Created the portfolio analysis Stars, dogs, cash cows, question marks 1980s (Porter’s 5 forces) 1990s (Resource based view of the firm) Why is strategic management important?:  Why is strategic management important? Gives everyone a role Makes a difference in performance levels Provides systematic approach to uncertainties Coordinates and focuses employees Why Strategy?:  Why Strategy? To change, an organization needs Burning Platform Vision Leadership Strategic Management Political Management Strategy vs. Strategic Management:  Strategy vs. Strategic Management Strategy A series of goal-directed decisions and actions matching an organization’s skills and resources with the opportunities and threats in its environment Strategic management Analyze current situation Develop appropriate strategies Put strategies into action Evaluate, modify, or change strategy Strategy vs. Strategic Management:  Strategy vs. Strategic Management Strategy involves Organization’s goals Goal-oriented action Related decisions and actions Internal strengths External opportunities and threats Strategic management Planning Organizing Implementing Controlling Basics of Strategic Management:  Basics of Strategic Management Four aspects that set strategic management apart Interdisciplinary Capstone of the Business degree External focus Competition Internal focus Future direction Strategic Management Process:  Strategic Management Process Analyzing Current Situation Deciding on Strategies Putting Strategies in Action Evaluating and Changing Strategies Situation Analysis Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation Strategy Evaluation Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 External Analysis Internal Analysis Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Functional Competitive Corporate Strategic Management Process:  Strategic Management Process Situation Analysis Scanning & evaluating context Internal and External environments Strategy formulation Functional Competitive Corporate strategies Levels of strategy:  Levels of strategy Strategic Management Process:  Strategic Management Process Strategy implementation Process of putting strategies into action Consider implementation at each level Strategy evaluation Was the strategy effective? “Close the loop” Who does strategy?:  Who does strategy? The Role of the Board of Directors Elected representatives of the company’s stockholders Legally obligated to represent and protect stockholder’s The Role of Top Management Responsible for decisions and action of every employee Providing effective leadership Other Organizational Employees Implement— put the strategies into action and monitor performance Evaluate—do the actual evaluations and take necessary actions The Role of the Board of Directors:  The Role of the Board of Directors Review and approve strategic goals and plans Review and approve organization's financial standards and policies Approve an organizational philosophy Monitor organizational performance and regularly review performance results Select, evaluate, and compensate top-level managers Develop management succession plans Monitor relations with shareholders and other key stakeholders Who is on the board of directors?:  Who is on the board of directors? Chairman of the board Chief Executive officer (CEO) President Chief Operating officer (COO) Other C’s Chief Financial officer Chief Information officer Inside board members Outside board members The Role of Top Management:  The Role of Top Management Effective Strategic Leadership Exploiting and Maintaining Core Competencies Developing Human Capital Creating and Sustaining Strong Organizational Culture Emphasizing Ethical Decisions and Practices Establishing Appropriately Balanced Controls Determining Organizational Purpose or Vision Strategic Management Principle:  Strategic Management Principle Effective strategy-making begins with a vision of where the organization needs to head! Elements of a Strategic Vision:  Elements of a Strategic Vision Use the mission statement as a starting point Develop a strategic vision that spells out a course to pursue Communicate the vision in a clear and exciting manner Characteristics of a Mission Statement:  Characteristics of a Mission Statement Defines current business activities Highlights boundaries of current business Conveys Who we are, What we do, and Where we are now Characteristics of a Mission Statement:  Characteristics of a Mission Statement Company specific, not generic —so as to give a company its own identity A company’s mission is not to make a profit ! The real mission is always—“What will we do to make a profit?” Examples of Missions:  Empower people through great software anytime, anyplace, and on any device. Microsoft Corporation Examples of Missions Examples of Missions:  Otis Elevator Our mission is to provide any customer a means of moving people and things up, down, and sideways over short distances with higher reliability than any similar enterprise in the world. Examples of Missions Examples of Mission:  Examples of Mission The mission of the American Red Cross is to improve the quality of human life; to enhance self-reliance and concern for others; and to help people avoid, prepare for, and cope with emergencies. American Red Cross Ritz-Carlton Hotels:  The Ritz-Carlton Hotel is a place where the genuine care and comfort of our guests is our highest mission. We pledge to provide the finest personal service and facilities for our guests who will always enjoy a warm, relaxed yet refined ambiance. The Ritz-Carlton experience enlivens the senses, instills well-being, and fulfills even the unexpressed wishes and needs of our guests (vision) Ritz-Carlton Hotels Characteristics of a Strategic Vision:  Characteristics of a Strategic Vision Charts a company’s future strategic course Defines the business makeup for 5 years (or more) Specifies future technology-product-customer focus Communicating the Vision:  Communicating the Vision An exciting, inspirational vision Challenges and motivates workforce Arouses strong sense of organizational purpose Induces employee buy-in Galvanizes people to live the business Value of a Well-Conceived Strategic Vision and Mission:  Value of a Well-Conceived Strategic Vision and Mission Crystallizes long-term direction Reduces risk of rudderless decision-making Conveys organizational purpose and identity Keeps direction-related actions of lower-level managers on common path Helps organization prepare for the future Concept of Strategic Intent:  Concept of Strategic Intent A company exhibits strategic intent when it relentlessly pursues an ambitious strategic objective and concentrates its competitive actions and energies on achieving that objective! Lessons about change: Built to last:  Lessons about change: Built to last Understand why superior companies are better than peer companies which are better than most companies $1 invested in stock market in 1926 yields $420 in all other companies $960 in peer companies $6360 in superior (visionary) companies Who are these companies:  Who are these companies Visionary 3M Boeing GE IBM Motorola Nordstrom P&G Sony Wal-mart Peer companies Norton McDonnell Douglass Westinghouse Burroughs Zenith Melville Colgate Kenwood Ames So what did they find?:  So what did they find? Great companies had BHAG Big Hairy Audacious Goals What ever your values are “stick with it” Deal with the AND, not the OR Seek Alignment (internally) Characteristics of Strategic Intent:  Characteristics of Strategic Intent Indicates firm’s intent to stake out a particular position over the long-term Involves establishing a BHAG - ”big, hairy, audacious goal” Signals relentless commitment to winning Example of BHAG:  Example of BHAG General Electric All businesses are held to a standard of being #1 or #2 in their industries as well as achieving good business results John F. Kennedy Put a man on the moon and return safely by the end of the decade Crafting a Strategy:  Crafting a Strategy An organization’s strategy deals with How to make the strategic vision a reality and achieve target objectives The game plan for Pleasing customers Conducting operations Building a sustainable competitive advantage Take Aways:  Take Aways Strategy has become more important Information, technology, globalization Key ideas in the strategy making process Mission (who are we) Vision (where do we want to go) Strategic intent / BHAG (major goal) Strategy (specific plan at different levels) Ethics (code of conduct or values) Linkage & communication are important Avoid mission creep! Take Aways:  Take Aways Where strategy came from Strategic Management Process Who does strategy Next week Read Airline Simulation Book (1-35) Bring Laptop

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