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Information about 1 heat stress
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Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Florence

Source: authorstream.com

Occupational Heat Stress:  Occupational Heat Stress Course Outline:  Course Outline Heat Stress Defined Contributors to Heat Stress The Bodies Response Monitoring for Heat Stress Heat Stress Controls The Management of Heat Stress Sources of Information:  Sources of Information ACGIH OSHA NIOSH Electrical Power Research Institute National Weather Service Experienced Employers World Health Organization Possible Approaches:  Possible Approaches WBGT Core Temperature Sweat Rates Urine Sodium Levels Recovery Heart Rate Where the heat comes from:  Where the heat comes from We generate some by our metabolism by converting our food to energy and using it to do work Some may be added by the environment Some may be taken away by the environment Clothing can trap the heat Loss of thermoregulation balance:  Loss of thermoregulation balance Heat Stress: Definition:  Heat Stress: Definition Net Heat Load on the Body from the Combined Contributions of Metabolic Heat Production and External Environmental Factors. Heat Strain:  Heat Strain The Net Physiological Load Resulting from Heat Stress Heat Index:  Heat Index Combines temperature & relative humidity for a “feels like” value Relative Humidity:  Relative Humidity Ratio of amount of water vapor in air compared to greatest amount possible at a specific temperature Absolute humidity relates to amount of water vapor in the air Typical Industries with Heat Stress Potential:  Typical Industries with Heat Stress Potential Iron & Steel Foundries Brick Firing & Ceramics Construction Glass Products Rubber Products Utilities Bakeries Military Canneries Mining Chemical Processing Smelters Steam Turners Laundries Fire Fighting Haz-Mat Applications Sports Industrial Hygiene Model:  Industrial Hygiene Model Identify Monitor Control Eliminate Minimize Protect PPE Training Environmental Factors:  Environmental Factors Temperature Evaporative Potential Air Movement Radiant Factor Our Body Responds:  Our Body Responds Hypothalamus -the body’s temperature control center Perspiration Blood Flow Evaporation defined:  Evaporation defined Process by which water turns to vapor without reaching its boiling point Molecules leave the surface taking energy with them – thus cooling When the responses fail, reactions occur:  When the responses fail, reactions occur Rash Cramping Exhaustion Syncope (fainting) Stroke Death Exhaustion:  Exhaustion Prolonged sweating Illness induced dehydration Thirst Weakness Headache Dizziness Uncoordinated Cool down Re-hydrate Syncope:  Syncope Prolonged position Pooling of blood Blurred vision Fainting Lay down Re-hydrate Stroke:  Stroke Extreme exposure Out of condition Additional Contributors Chills Convulsions Unconscious Immediate cooling Medical care Prolonged exposures:  Prolonged exposures Every physical symptom you can imagine Key Body Temperatures:  Key Body Temperatures 37oC 98.6oF Normal 38oC 100.4oF Long exposure 38.5oC 101.3oF 39oC 102.2oF Short exposure 41oC 105.8oF Life threatening Conversion Formulas:  Conversion Formulas Centigrade to Fahrenheit C = (F-32) x 5/9 Fahrenheit to Centigrade F = 9/5 C + 32 Metabolism defined:  Metabolism defined The rate of converting food to useable energy and heat within the body Classification of Activities:  Classification of Activities Heat Stress Symptoms:  Heat Stress Symptoms Sweat cessation Skin color change Shivering Irritability Disorientation Internal Factors:  Internal Factors Fluid balance Metabolism Perspiration ability Complicating Factors:  Complicating Factors Age Health Medication Acclimatization/conditioning Assessments Guaranteed to Fail:  Assessments Guaranteed to Fail Thirst Self appraisal – the double edged sword Self Regulation:  Self Regulation Worker knows self better than anyone or anything - vs. – Pay incentives Macho Phenomenon Emergencies Labor/Management Relationship Heat Stress Consequences:  Heat Stress Consequences Fatigue, tired feeling Reduced productivity Increased errors, accidents ------------------------------------------------- Risk of heat related disorders This suggests two areas for assessment:  This suggests two areas for assessment External Evaluate the ambient environment and its affects on the person Internal Evaluate the heat being generated within the person and/or its individual physiological affects Wet Bulb Globe Temperature:  Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Wet Sensor assesses evaporation (humidity & air movement) -as distilled water evaporates from cup, it cools the sensor Globe Sensor assesses radiant component Bulb Sensor assesses ambient temperature WBGT Heat Stress Index:  WBGT Heat Stress Index Outdoors with Solar Load 0.7 NWB + 0.2 GT + 0.1 DB Indoors or Outdoors without Solar Load 0.7 NWB + 0.3 GT See Latest ACGIH TLV Guide for assessment of work rate and clothing Evaluation and Control:  Evaluation and Control Classify Type of Work Load Light Moderate Heavy Correction Factors for Type of Work WBGT is Measured and Rest Time is Determined Examples of Permissible Heat Exposure Threshold Limit Values:  Examples of Permissible Heat Exposure Threshold Limit Values WBGT Correction Factors for Clothing (in °C):  WBGT Correction Factors for Clothing (in °C) Other Heat Stress Issues:  Other Heat Stress Issues Standards Developed for: Acclimatized, Hydrated, Unmedicated, Healthy Workers, Wearing Light-weight Summer Clothing ISO Standards Suggests 3 Point Monitoring in Certain Environments Current Standards State Workers Should not Work if Deep Body Temp Exceeds 38°C QUESTEMP 10 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor:  QUESTEMP 10 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor Wet Bulb, Dry Bulb & Globe Temps Indoor & Outdoor WBGT Indices Celcius and Farenheit Scales Remote Sensor Capable (100 ft.) 9V Alkaline or AC (Optional Adapter) QUESTEMP 15 Datalogging Area Monitor:  QUESTEMP 15 Datalogging Area Monitor Same As QUESTEMP 10 PLUS: Time History Datalogging Real-time Clock w/ Programmable Start-Stop Optionally Supports (3) Sensor Arrays Custom WBGT Programmable Temperature-Actuated Alarm Output Outputs to Serial/Parallel Printers & PC QUESTEMP 30 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor:  QUESTEMP 30 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor Replacement for QUESTEMP 10 Larger, Covered WB Reservoir Shielded DB Sensor Multi-Lingual 200 ft Remote Sensor Capable ETL, cETL, DEMKO, CE QUESTEMP 32 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor:  QUESTEMP 32 Non-Datalogging Area Monitor Same as QUESTEMP 30, PLUS: On-Board RH Sensor for Heat Index Sensors & Care:  Sensors & Care Remote Multiple Input – ISO Calibration Sensor Range & Accuracy:  Sensor Range & Accuracy Range - 5 to 50o C 23 to 122o F Accuracy +/- 0.5o C Settling Time:  Settling Time Needs to be in environment for 30 minutes Calculation Example:  Calculation Example Control Rod Drive in a dry well Light work rate Coveralls with a plastic protective suit Dry bulb 91o Wet bulb 71o Globe 91o WBGT = ??? Calculation Example:  Calculation Example Feed water check valve in steam valve Moderate work Coveralls with plastic protective suit Dry bulb 114 Wet bulb 84 Globe 118 WBGT = ??? Calculation Example:  Calculation Example Turbine repair on low pressure side Moderate work Coveralls with plastic protective suit Dry bulb 109 Wet bulb 94 Globe 106 WBGT = ??? Calculating Average from Multiple Exposures:  Calculating Average from Multiple Exposures WBGT1 x t1 + WBGT2 x t2…+WBGTn x tn t1 + t2…+ tn Calculating Average from Multiple Exposures:  Calculating Average from Multiple Exposures WBGT of 88 for 2 hours WBGT of 92 for 1 hour WBGT of 101 for 1 hour Equivalent WBGT = ??? New Proposed Standards:  New Proposed Standards Temperatures for Unacclimatized Workers Slightly Higher Temps. For Acclimatized WBGT Would be Screening Tool Personal Monitoring Would be Needed Among other Options: Limit Deep Body Temperature to 38° C for Unacclimatized and 38.5 ° for Acclimatized Proposed Decision Tree:  Proposed Decision Tree Personal Monitoring:  Personal Monitoring Key is to identify heat stress as it begins Personal monitoring goes beyond ambient measures by considering affects of: -medications -alcohol -diseases -micro environments -individual acclimatization Personal Monitoring:  Personal Monitoring Core Temperature - rectal, oral, esophageal Skin surface and heart rate Auditory Canal Personal Heat Stress Monitor:  Personal Heat Stress Monitor Questemp II Monitors body temperature in the ear Evaluates worker response rather than ambient potential Micro environments hs-3800 Datalogging Personal Monitor:  hs-3800 Datalogging Personal Monitor Displays & Logs Body Temp Heart Rate Built-in EPRI Tables Real-time Clock Pre-set Warn & Action Alarms Outputs to Serial Printer & PC Program Evaluation:  Program Evaluation Workplace description Work activity Equipment History Exposure characteristics Weather influence Controls in Place Training Liquids Time/conditioning mgmt Monitoring 1st Aid Medical Screening Managing the exposure:  Managing the exposure Re-hydration Ventilation Humidity Reduction Rest/Work Scheduling Change Process or Procedure Clothing Cooling Vests Example of a cooling vest:  Example of a cooling vest Education & Training:  Education & Training Elements of Heat Stress Human Factors Managing Your Own Exposure Controls in Place

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