1.8

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Information about 1.8

Published on September 22, 2008

Author: netzwellenedu

Source: slideshare.net

AIM: Where did life originate from?

“…sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes…” AIM: Where did life originate from?

Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 3500 Molten-hot surface of 4000 earth becomes cooler 4500 Formation of earth

Bacteria Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia 0 Cenozoic bacteria Mesozoic Colonization of land Paleozoic by animals 500 Appearance of animals and land plants 1000 First multicellular PROTEROZOIC organisms 1500 Oldest definite fossils Millions of years ago of eukaryotes PRECAMBRIAN 2000 Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere 2500 Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes ARCHEAN 3000 The evolutionary tree of 3500 life can be documented Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler with evidence. 4000 The Origin of Life on 4500 Formation of earth Earth is another story…

What is Life?

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE…

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA

What is Life? § First we have to define LIFE… u organized as cells u respond to stimuli u regulate internal processes § homeostasis u use energy to grow § metabolism u develop § change & mature within lifetime u reproduce § heredity w DNA / RNA § adaptation & evolution

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force?

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth?

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules?

The Origin of Life is Hypothesis § Special Creation u Was life created by a supernatural or divine force? u not testable § Extraterrestrial Origin u Was the original source of organic (carbon) materials comets & meteorites striking early Earth? u Heavy bombardment 4bya may have delivered organic compound and water to Earth u testable § Spontaneous Abiotic Origin u Did life evolve spontaneously from inorganic molecules? u testable

Origin of Organic Compounds

Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds:

Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions

Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets

Origin of Organic Compounds Possible locations that would have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds: § Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean release chemicals, creating unusual chemical conditions § Extraterrestrial origin: Scientists have shown that organic compounds could have formed in cold interstellar space and then delivered to Earth by meteors or comets § Chemical reactions in the atmosphere and in water, on the surface of the Earth

Spontaneous Origin of Life

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation”

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include:

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide)

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides)

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics

Spontaneous Origin of Life Pasteur disproved “spontaneous generation” Oldest bacterial fossil date back to 1.9 bya Processes that would have been needed for the first cells to form include: 1. Chemical reactions to produce simple organic molecules (ex. amino acids) from inorganic molecules (ex. water, carbon dioxide) 2. Assembly of these organic molecules into polymers (ex. polypeptides) 3. Formation of polymers that can self replicate to allow for the inheritance of characteristics 4. Packaging of these molecules into membranes with an internal chemistry different from the

Conditions on early Earth

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown as quickly What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Conditions on early Earth § Reducing atmosphere u water vapor (H2O), CO2, N2, NOx, H2, NH3, CH4, H2S u lots of available H & its electron u no free oxygen low O2 = organic molecules § Energy source do not breakdown u lightning, UV radiation, as quickly volcanic What’s missing from that atmosphere?

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis CH4 Water vapor H2 NH3 Mixture of gases (quot;primitive Condenser atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) Water Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, organic Heated water molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Electrodes discharge sparks Origin of Organic Molecules (lightning simulation) § Abiotic synthesis u 1920 Water vapor CH4 Oparin & Haldane H2 propose reducing NH3 Mixture of gases atmosphere (quot;primitive Condenser hypothesis atmospherequot;) u 1953 Water Miller & Urey test hypothesis § formed organic compounds Condensed w amino acids liquid with complex, w adenine Heated water organic molecules (quot;oceanquot;)

Stanley Miller University of Chicago produced -amino acids -hydrocarbons -nitrogen bases -other organics It’s ALIVE!

Phospholipids

Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality”

Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” interaction with H2O is complex & very important!

Phospholipids § Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? u fatty acid tails = hydrophobic u PO4 = hydrophilic head u dual “personality” It likes water & also pushes it away! interaction with H2O is complex & very important!

Phospholipids in water

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles”

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer bilayer

Phospholipids in water § Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O § Hydrophobic tails “hide” from H2O u can self-assemble into “bubbles” § can also form bilayer § early evolutionary stage of cell? bilayer

Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction

Origin of Cells (Protobionts) § Bubbles → separate inside from outside → metabolism & reproduction Bubbles… Tiny bubbles…

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule

Dawn of natural selection Origin of Genetics § RNA is likely first genetic material u multi-functional u codes information § self-replicating molecule § makes inheritance possible § natural selection & evolution u enzyme functions u transport molecule § tRNA & mRNA

Key Events in Origin of Life

Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth

Key Events in Origin of Life § Key events in evolutionary history of life on Earth u life originated 3.5–4.0 bya

Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya

Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya

Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria

Prokaryotes § Prokaryotes dominated life on Earth from 3.5–2.0 bya 3.5 billion year old fossil of bacteria modern bacteria chains of one-celled cyanobacteria

Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies

Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies

Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies

Stromatolites Fossilized mats of prokaryotes resemble modern microbial colonies

Oxygen atmosphere

Oxygen atmosphere

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic

Oxygen atmosphere § Oxygen begins to accumulate 2.7 bya u reducing → oxidizing atmosphere § evidence in banded iron in rocks = rusting § makes aerobic respiration possible u photosynthetic u algae)

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope plasma membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma membrane Prokaryotic cell

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope infolding of the plasma plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic cell ancestor of eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells

~2 bya First Eukaryotes § Development of internal membranes u create internal micro-environments u advantage: specialization = increase efficiency nuclear envelope endoplasmic infolding of the plasma reticulum (ER) plasma membrane membrane nucleus DNA cell wall plasma Prokaryotic membrane Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cell ancestor of cell eukaryotic cells

Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis internal membrane system Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral eukaryotic cell

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of mitochondria u engulfed aerobic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship internal membrane aerobic bacterium mitochondrion system Endosymbiosis Ancestral Eukaryotic cell eukaryotic cell with mitochondrion

Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Endosymbiosis § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion

Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis cell with mitochondrion § Evolution of eukaryotes u origin of chloroplasts u engulfed photosynthetic bacteria, but did not digest them u mutually beneficial relationship photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast Endosymbiosis mitochondrion Eukaryotic cell with chloroplast & mitochondrion

Theory of Endosymbiosis

Theory of Endosymbiosis Lynn Margulis

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence Lynn Margulis

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural Lynn Margulis

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure Lynn Margulis

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell

Theory of Endosymbiosis § Evidence u structural § mitochondria & chloroplasts resemble bacterial structure u genetic Lynn Margulis § mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own circular DNA, like bacteria u functional § mitochondria & chloroplasts move freely within the cell § mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce independently from the cell

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