1.6

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Information about 1.6

Published on September 22, 2008

Author: netzwellenedu

Source: slideshare.net

AIM: What are the overall factors causing evolution? Warm-up: Briefly describe 2 mechanisms that could account for speciation.

5 Agents of evolutionary change

5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation

5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow

5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating

5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating Genetic Drift

5 Agents of evolutionary change Mutation Gene Flow Non-random mating Genetic Drift Selection

1. Mutation & Variation

1. Mutation & Variation

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence u changes protein

1. Mutation & Variation § Mutation creates variation u new mutations are constantly appearing § Mutation changes DNA sequence u changes amino acid sequence u changes protein u changes in protein may change phenotype & therefore change fitness

2. Gene Flow

2. Gene Flow

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies § causes genetic mixing across regions

2. Gene Flow § Movement of individuals & alleles in & out of populations u seed & pollen distribution by wind & insect u migration of animals § sub-populations may have different allele frequencies § causes genetic mixing across regions § reduce differences between populations

Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations

Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations

Human evolution today § Gene flow in human populations is increasing today u transferring alleles between populations Are we moving towards a blended world?

3. Non-random mating § Sexual selection

3. Non-random mating § Sexual selection

4. Genetic drift

4. Genetic drift

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck § some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es

4. Genetic drift § Effect of chance events u founder effect § small group splinters off & starts a new colony u bottleneck § some factor (disaster) reduces population to small number & then population recovers & expands again er Warbl finc h Gr s he ou inc n d ef fin e ch Tr es

Founder effect

Founder effect § When a new population is started by only a few individuals u some rare alleles may be at high frequency; others may be missing u skew the gene pool of new population § human populations that started from small group of colonists § example: colonization of New World

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the O type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original settlement

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration

Distribution of blood types § Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world reflects original migration

Bottleneck effect

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat…

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool w not due to fitness

Bottleneck effect § When large population is drastically reduced by a disaster u famine, natural disaster, loss of habitat… u loss of variation by chance event § alleles lost from gene pool w not due to fitness § narrows the gene pool

Cheetahs

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age u last 100 years

Cheetahs § All cheetahs share a small number of alleles u less than 1% diversity u as if all cheetahs are identical twins § 2 bottlenecks u 10,000 years ago § Ice Age u last 100 years § poaching & loss of habitat

Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues Golden Lion Tamarin

Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species Golden Lion Tamarin

Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool Golden Lion Tamarin

Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool u reduces variation Golden Lion Tamarin

Peregrine Falcon Conservation issues § Bottlenecking is an important concept in conservation biology of endangered species u loss of alleles from gene pool u reduces variation u reduces adaptability Breeding programs must consciously outcross Golden Lion Tamarin

5. Natural selection

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins u combinations of alleles that provide “fitness” increase in the population

5. Natural selection § Differential survival & reproduction due to changing environmental conditions § climate change § food source availability § predators, parasites, diseases § toxins u combinations of alleles that provide “fitness” increase in the population § adaptive evolutionary change

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