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1 4 Robin

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Published on February 6, 2008

Author: Marcell

Source: authorstream.com

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FDA Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food: Update on Activities: FDA Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food: Update on Activities Lauren Posnick Robin, Sc.D. FDA/CFSAN 2005 Toxicology Forum Summer Meeting July 11, 2005 Background: Background First report, Sweden, April 2002 Neurotoxicant and potential human carcinogen Found in a wide range of foods, including dietary staples Formed through traditional cooking methods During food processing and at home From nutrients in food (asparagine and reducing sugars) FDA Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food: FDA Action Plan for Acrylamide in Food Draft Action Plan for Acrylamide, September 2002 Revised version, Food Advisory Committee, February 2003 Final scheduled revision, March 2004 Acrylamide information page: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/pestadd.html#acrylamide Slide 4: Specific Action Areas Methodologies Research on Formation Measuring Exposure Toxicology and Health Effects Epidemiology Risk Assessment Meetings Inform and Educate the Public Further Actions Methodologies: Methodologies LC/MS/MS method posted on CFSAN website in June 2002; updated July 2002 and February 2003 FDA published studies on acrylamide measurement methodology and on acrylamide measurement in coffee samples in 2003 and 2004. Steven Musser, John Roach, Martha Gay, Dennis Andrzejewski, David Nortrup Methodologies: Methodologies Goal: Evaluate screening methodologies for more rapid or less expensive detection of acrylamide in the food supply. HPLC/fluorescence method HPLC + 2-step post column reaction + fluorescence detection of substituted isoindole LOD ≤ 10 ppb Mixed success in foods; matrix dependent Need to identify internal standard May be useful for small producers to monitor processes Greg Noonan, Tim Begley, Charles Warner, Greg Diachenko Research on Formation: Research on Formation FDA/NCFST: Effects of Consumer Food Preparation on Acrylamide Formation Lauren S. Jackson, Fadwa Al-Taher, Joe Jablonski Project objectives Study the effects of cooking conditions (e.g. time and temperature) on acrylamide formation in a variety of consumer-prepared foods Measure the degree of correlation between degree of browning and acrylamide levels in a variety of foods Identify methods for reducing acrylamide formation in home-prepared food Research on Formation: Research on Formation Selected major findings: Toasting “Dark” toasting resulted in low to moderate acrylamide formation in most breads. “Light” toasting results in little increase in acrylamide formation. Scraping toast to remove browned surface reduces acrylamide levels. Research on Formation: Research on Formation Research on Formation: Research on Formation Research on Formation: Research on Formation Selected Findings: French Fries Acrylamide levels increased with increasing frying times and temperatures. Acrylamide levels increased with degree of browning. Brown color, as measured by “L” and “a” values, correlated highly with acrylamide levels. 515 ppb 866 ppb 1512 ppb 262 ppb 76 ppb 45 ppb Research on Formation: Research on Formation Selected major findings: French fries Rinsing/soaking fresh-cut fries before frying (e.g., in NaCl, vinegar, lemon juice) reduced acrylamide. Potato storage from 6 - 8 °C increased acrylamide formation in fries; storage at room temperature decreased acrylamide formation. Frying oil type and reuse did not affect acrylamide formation. Research on Formation: Research on Formation Selected major findings: Browning Degree of browning can be used as an indicator of acrylamide formation during cooking or processing. Cooking foods to the same degree of ‘doneness’ as indicated by the degree of browning may result in similar levels of acrylamide formation. Measuring Exposure: Measuring Exposure Goal: Determine exposure of U.S. consumers to acrylamide from food In June 2005, FDA released new data on acrylamide levels in food: Four hundred samples from FDA’s Total Diet Study (TDS) for FY04 Almost 500 targeted samples (through JIFSAN-Covance contract) Samples now total over 2100 Many foods from restaurants/take-out stores: Asian, Hispanic, and Southern cuisines 54 new infant formula samples—no detectable acrylamide Measuring Exposure: Measuring Exposure Laboratory analysis CFSAN analytical staff Kansas City: Marvin Hopper, Ron Luchtefeld, Pat Wisor Covance Exposure assessment Michael DiNovi and Donna R. Howard Update Based on CSFII 1994-1996, 1998 intake survey For ages 2+ Top 20 Foods by Mean Acrylamide Intake: Top 20 Foods by Mean Acrylamide Intake Top Eight Foods by Acrylamide Per Portion: Top Eight Foods by AcrylamidePer Portion * Portion Sizes From 21 CFR 101.12, Table 2 Exposure Summary: Exposure Summary Original “crude” estimates, 2002 0.7 µg/kg-bw-d 0.3-0.8 µg/kg-bw-d First FDA model, 2003 0.4 µg/kg-bw-d Updated FDA model, 2004 0.4 µg/kg-bw-d Updated FDA model, 2005 0.4 µg/kg-bw-d Toxicology: Toxicology FDA’s National Center for Toxicological Research is carrying out a comprehensive suite of toxicology studies on acrylamide and glycidamide. Hemoglobin and DNA adducts Toxicokinetics In vivo mutagenicity Carcinogenicity bioassays Neurotoxicity Toxicology: Toxicology At least nine studies from NCTR published or in press since 2002 on acrylamide toxicology Data used in recent assessment by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA) Ultimately, data will be used in FDA risk assessment Epidemiology: Epidemiology CDC/NCEH monitoring acrylamide- and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts in NHANES CDC/NCEH hemoglobin adduct/feeding study NCTR may participate in expanded study to relate Hb adducts to DNA adducts Review of epidemiology studies for JIFSAN, JECFA, CCFAC Meetings: Meetings Goal: Participate in/convene meetings to gather public and expert input and foster coordination of efforts Public meeting, September 2002 Food Advisory Committee/Subcommittee, December 2002 and March 2003 Interagency meetings, September 2002, February 2004 JIFSAN Acrylamide Workshops, October 2003, April 2004 Meetings: Meetings 64th JECFA, February 2005 FDA experts participated U.S. toxicology and exposure assessment data incorporated JECFA concluded that acrylamide may be a human health concern based on Margin of Exposure (MOE). Meetings: Meetings JECFA recommendations consistent with FDA approach to acrylamide Reevaluate when ongoing carcinogenicity and long-term neurotoxicity studies are available; Continue work on toxicology modeling; Continue appropriate efforts to reduce acrylamide concentrations in food; and Encourage accumulation of scientific data on acrylamide in foods in developing countries. Meetings: Meetings 37th Meeting, Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), April 2005 US (FDA) co-lead with UK on Discussion Paper on Acrylamide Initial version presented in 2004, revised version presented in 2005 Formation and mitigation section Third version planned for 2006 meeting, to include outline of Code of Practice Inform and Educate the Public: Inform and Educate the Public Sharing information through meetings, web postings, FDA Consumer article Dietary message: Eat a balanced diet, choosing a variety of foods that are low in trans fat and saturated fat, and rich in high-fiber grains, fruits, and vegetables. Advice must be carefully constructed to avoid greater risks, such as undercooking or neglecting important dietary staples. FDA is considering developing consumer/retail information on ways to reduce exposure. Next Steps: Next Steps Continue toxicology research, including PB/PK model Currently collecting and analyzing Total Diet Study (TDS) samples for FY05 For FYO6 and beyond, monitor one TDS market basket on a rotating basis Consumer information CCFAC Discussion Paper Publish methodology, mitigation studies

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