67 %
33 %
Information about 07-AppB-CSL-0106

Published on January 14, 2009

Author: aSGuest10486

Source: authorstream.com

Lecture 8Sport and Violence : Lecture 8Sport and Violence Coakley Chp 7 This lecture will identify: : This lecture will identify: A brief history of violence in sports On-field violence among players Off-field violence among players and the impact of sports upon people’s lives apart from sports Violence among spectators who watch media coverage of sports and attend events What is violence?violence, aggression, intimidation : What is violence?violence, aggression, intimidation Violence is the use of excessive physical force, which causes or has the potential to cause harm or destruction We often think of violence as illegal when it is connected to underconformity of societal rules and norms However, when violence occurs in connection with enforcement of norms in society, such as protecting people or property, it is often approved ie apprehending and punishing a burglar Slide 4: Similarly, when soldiers, police and athletes use violence in pursuit of victory it is often seen as acceptable to the situation In the case of sports, violence can be perceived to be accepted by the majority or rejected as a consequence of sporting norms (ie smashing through a pack in football breaking another players ribs is condoned and supported by both teams as a part of the game) These norms may vary from sport to sport depending on the culture in which they exist as well as the governing rules of the sport eg touching umpires prohibited in some sports condoned in others Aggression : Aggression The term aggression will be used to refer to verbal or physical actions grounded in an intent to dominate, control, or do harm to another person Aggression is often involved in violence, although some violence occurs without aggressive intent That is, a very competitive person may use violence to win rather than with the intent to harm others Intimidation : Intimidation Intimidation is the use of words, gestures , and actions that threaten violence or aggression Like aggression, intimidation is used as a means to dominate and control another person Violence throughout sport history : Violence throughout sport history Violence is not new to sport and physical activity As we have noted, the ancient blood sports of ancient Roman and Greek times were commonplace and accepted The folk games that resulted in death and injury would shock people of today As would the sports in which animals were used as a means of sport and entertainment ie cock fighting, dog fighting Slide 8: As a part of the overall civilising process of Europe and North America, modern sports were developed as more rule-governed activities than the physical games of previous eras As sports became formally organised official rules prohibited certain forms of violence that were common in folk games Bloodshed decreased, and there was a greater emphasis on self-control to restrict physical contact and expression of aggressive impulses during the heat of competition Violence on the field : Violence on the field Using Smith’s typology of categorising on-field violence Brutal body contact Borderline violence Quasi-criminal violence Criminal violence 1. Brutal body contact : 1. Brutal body contact Includes hits, tackles, blocks, collisions Physical practices that are common in certain sports (often highly masculinised sports) Most people in society think of this as extreme yet it is not illegal and is not punished 2. Borderline violence : 2. Borderline violence Includes practices that violate the rules of the game but are accepted by most players and coaches as being within the bounds of sports ethics eg “shirtfront” in AFL 3. Quasi-criminal violence : 3. Quasi-criminal violence Include practices that violate formal rules of the game, public laws, and even the informal norms of the players Examples include: “king hit” behind play, “spear” tackles, elbow hits to head, eye gouging Fines and suspensions usually eventuate 4. Criminal violence : 4. Criminal violence Includes practices that are clearly outside the law to the point where athletes condemn them without question Law enforcement may even prosecute them as crimes Whilst rare criminal violence can and has occurred in sports eg ice Hockey in 2000 when a player smashed another’s head with a stick Why Violence? : Why Violence? While players often do not feel comfortable with brutal body contact and borderline violence it is condoned and accepted within their sport Violence for some athletes can reaffirm a position in the side and reaffirm membership of a group or subculture Those who use (and accept) violence can often become legends (Dermott Brereton) Those who use quasi and criminal violence are marginalised (David Granger, Phil Carman) Commercialisation and violence in sports : Commercialisation and violence in sports Brutal body contact makes good television Brutal body contact is what many sports fans want to see in masculinised contact sports Governing sporting bodies try to eliminate on-field quasi and criminal violence However, quasi-criminal has been around for many years prior to television coverage We should not believe that commercialisation of sports has created the need for high impact brutal body contact and quasi-criminal behaviour Violence and masculinity : Violence and masculinity Violence in sport is not limited to men However, critical feminist research indicates that to understand violence in sports we need to understand gender ideology and issues of masculinity in culture For many boys power and performance sports has become a way to prove one’s masculinity Boys discover that if they play masculinised sports and be seen to “do” violence they can avoid social label as pussy, fag, wimp, wuss Learning to “take it” and “give it back” are markers of masculinity in masculinised sports and this is learned early in a boys life Slide 17: Young males come to sport with identities that lead them to define their athletic experience differently than females do. Despite the fact that few truly enjoy hitting and being hit, and that one has to be socialised into participating in much of the violence commonplace in sport, males often view aggression, within the rule-bound structure of sport, as legitimate and “natural.” (Messner, 1992, p. 67) Violence off the field : Violence off the field When athletes are arrested for violent crimes many people assume that it has something to do with their violent strategies learned on-field However, the carryover from “on-field” to “off-field” is difficult to research and assess Things to remember: High profile athletes are in the spotlight and will attract media coverage otherwise not covered People may provoke violence due to status of athlete Violence among spectatorsDo sports incite violence among spectators? : Violence among spectatorsDo sports incite violence among spectators? Violence among TV viewers: Little data on this We know they become emotive but do not know whether anger is directed at family and friends at home Violence at sport events : Violence at sport events Spectators attending non-contact sports seldom engage in violence ie golf, tennis, gymnastics Spectators at contact sports are more vocal and emotive, yet most have not been involved in violent acts However, crowd violence does occur Historical background : Historical background Crowd violence is not new Crowd violence in Roman and early Medieval times made current spectator violence look tame in comparison Baseball in the US has had a long history of crowd violence from the early 1900s Soccer “hooliganism” is an aspect requiring ongoing attention Celebratory violence : Celebratory violence Oddly enough, some of the most serious crowd violence offences occur following victories in important games Little knowledge other than newspaper reports to theorise these concepts More research is required Spectator violence : Spectator violence Spectator violence can occur due the situation of the sport and its environment Spectator violence is likely to vary with one or more of the following factors: Slide 24: Crowd size and the standing or seating patterns among spectators Composition of the crowd in terms of age, sex, social class, and racial/ethnic mix Meaning and importance of the event for spectators History of the relationship between the teams and between spectators Crowd control strategies used at the event (police, attack dogs surveillance cameras) Alcohol consumption by spectators Spectator’s reasons for attending the event and what they want to happen at the event Importance of the team as a source of identity for the spectators (class, ethnic, national club, gang identity) Limiting spectator violence : Limiting spectator violence Organisers and administrators must be aware of the problems that may possibly occur prior to an event They must use the research of sport sociologists to assist them in developing strategies to limit spectator violence

Add a comment

Related presentations