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Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Haralda

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旅行文學導讀 E – Travel :  旅行文學導讀 E – Travel 清華大學外語系 廖炳惠教授 Why Travel? :  Why Travel? Escape Economy of Movement Empowerment (Distance and Overcoming) Enlightenment (Self vs. Other) Exoticism Exile 三個S :  三個S 首先要了解,旅行是指一個地方到另一個地區的移動。這個移動牽涉到至少三個S,分別為Science,Sentiment,Semiosis 。 Science:  Science 旅行的科技層面 :  旅行的科技層面 Sentiment:  Sentiment 情感結構 :  情感結構 Semiosis:  Semiosis 心理符號機制 :  心理符號機制 Slide10:  Science: Means, Communities, Allies, PR, Concepts Sentiments Semiosis From C to M to E Travel:  From C to M to E Travel I. Caesar:  I. Caesar “Vini, Vidi, Vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.” ) ---Julius Caesar II. Marx:  II. Marx “The individual considers on his own freedom the movement of his alienated life elements, like property, industry, religion; in reality, this movement is the perfection of this slavery.” --- Karl Marx III. E-Travel:  III. E-Travel Environment Ecology E-mail E-Travel :  E-Travel Michelle Green, “Eco-Tourism: The Director's Cut” ---New York Times, April 3, 2005 Slide16:  Travel Literature: Pasts and Futures Mythologies and Folktales: Adventures and Empowerment From Epic to Romance: Gilgamesh, Odyssey, Song of Roland, etc. The Rise of the Novel: Don Quixote, Robinson Crusoe, Moby Dick From C to M to E-Travel 林語堂 (生活的藝術):  林語堂 (生活的藝術) 「旅行的動機,應為旅行以求忘我之存在,大凡一個人『在家』時,總是唯我獨尊的,同時需受各種俗尚、規則、習慣和責任的束縛。因此旅行真正的理由是變換所處的社會,使他人拿他當一個尋常人看。而也正當把自己當作一個『尋常人』時,『無所特善視者』,才能『盡善視普世人』。 南京雜感 :  南京雜感 我在民國三十年一月十二日首途渡華,在大上海參觀一過,即往南京,住了一年又三個月。在說到中國四百餘州的首都之前,我願先想想中國的性格這個漠然的問題。擁有悠久歷史的中國大陸,彷彿有什麼不變的性格似的。就說它是中國的性格吧。當然,過去不知有過多少學者、專家、篤志家對這個問題下過研究的功夫。但是,我不認為他們捕捉到了中國的性格。因為,他們大多只是從過去的事實率然加以如此如此的判斷,是危險的。因為,不明白中國的性格,是無法了解中國的。對這個問題,恐怕連中國人本身都不太清楚。 (吳濁流 1977: 51) 古都 (朱天心1997) :  古都 (朱天心1997) 你簡直不明白為什麼打那時候起就從不停止的老有遠意、老想遠行、遠走高飛,其實你不曾有超過一個月以上時間的離開過這海島,像島夷海寇們常幹的事。好些年了,你甚至得時時把這個城市的某一部分、某一段路、某一街景幻想成某些個你去過或從未去過的城市,你才過得下去,就像很多男人,必須把不管感情好壞的妻子幻想成某個女人,才能做得了男女之事。 車速以時速一百公里衝越關渡宮隘口,大江就橫現眼前,每次你們都會非常感動或深深吸口河海空氣對初次來的遊伴說:「看像不像長江?」 車過竹圍,若值黃昏,落日從觀音山那頭連著江面波光直射照眼,那長滿了黃槿和紅樹林的沙洲,以及棲於其間的小白鷺牛背鷺夜鷺,便就讓人想起晴川歷歷漢陽樹,芳草萋萋鸚鵡洲。 (朱天心1997:153):  車速以時速一百公里衝越關渡宮隘口,大江就橫現眼前,每次你們都會非常感動或深深吸口河海空氣對初次來的遊伴說:「看像不像長江?」 車過竹圍,若值黃昏,落日從觀音山那頭連著江面波光直射照眼,那長滿了黃槿和紅樹林的沙洲,以及棲於其間的小白鷺牛背鷺夜鷺,便就讓人想起晴川歷歷漢陽樹,芳草萋萋鸚鵡洲。 (朱天心1997:153) 你從來沒有過【從摩天大樓的展望台上】這個角度看你生長三十多年的地方,大概老天爺城隍爺就差不多這種距離看吧,不太遠也不太近,如此那些前日你曾在高速公路九人巴士上感嘆「天啊要醜到這種地步也真不容易 ……」的房子才不致那麼明顯。(朱天心1997: 211):  你從來沒有過【從摩天大樓的展望台上】這個角度看你生長三十多年的地方,大概老天爺城隍爺就差不多這種距離看吧,不太遠也不太近,如此那些前日你曾在高速公路九人巴士上感嘆「天啊要醜到這種地步也真不容易 ……」的房子才不致那麼明顯。(朱天心1997: 211) 我們甚至隱隱害怕,儘管在那些記憶裡,我們啥個傷天害理的事也沒幹!. . . 把道德二字替換成記憶,我們會發現我們多麼害怕那些有意無意被喚醒的真實的記憶,天啊它是與集體修改過並可示人的記憶是多麼扞格、扞格到彷彿自己是一個叛徒似的。最好,只留下有用的記憶,不然會很危險的。(朱天心1997: 132-33):  我們甚至隱隱害怕,儘管在那些記憶裡,我們啥個傷天害理的事也沒幹!. . . 把道德二字替換成記憶,我們會發現我們多麼害怕那些有意無意被喚醒的真實的記憶,天啊它是與集體修改過並可示人的記憶是多麼扞格、扞格到彷彿自己是一個叛徒似的。最好,只留下有用的記憶,不然會很危險的。(朱天心1997: 132-33) 門外漢的京都 (舒國治, 2006) :  門外漢的京都 (舒國治, 2006) 京都另一最大風景資產(除了山門),是長牆。人依傍著它踽踽行走,似永走之不盡,此種寬銀幕畫面,是世上最美的景。 我於牆之喜愛,極可能來自幼年臺灣各處皆是日式規劃下的巷牆,加上兒時看日本劍道片、忍術片,戲中人總在黑夜牆下殺鬥,時而沿牆追打,突一轉入巷子,又遇伏兵,接著再殺。這些牆,竟然是那麼多驚險劇情的托襯屏障,何等的天成,何等的神筆!當年心道:日本怎麼會有如許多的長牆?這樣牆曲牆折、牆夾來牆夾去的所構成之迷宮,教人夜晚怎麼敢走路呢?而要是犯了仇家,如何能逃過他的圍堵呢? 如今,這些幼年銀幕上所見的牆,竟已可以撫在我的手下、賞嘆在我的佇足中、並讓我無盡的沿著它緩緩蕩步。 日本夜晚,有一種極其特殊的氣氛;即我們小時候自電影已然有此印象。而此特殊氣氛,主要來自日本之建築與市街格局。 小時候見一曲名,謂《荒城之月》,心道:極合也。壓根便將日本長牆、日本屋瓦、甚至夜色、甚至日本淒淒笛聲等等剎的呼喚出來。(舒國治 , 2006):  如今,這些幼年銀幕上所見的牆,竟已可以撫在我的手下、賞嘆在我的佇足中、並讓我無盡的沿著它緩緩蕩步。 日本夜晚,有一種極其特殊的氣氛;即我們小時候自電影已然有此印象。而此特殊氣氛,主要來自日本之建築與市街格局。 小時候見一曲名,謂《荒城之月》,心道:極合也。壓根便將日本長牆、日本屋瓦、甚至夜色、甚至日本淒淒笛聲等等剎的呼喚出來。(舒國治 , 2006) 京都的咖啡館,可謂三步一家、五步一店,多得不可勝數。有時巷弄一轉角,便一家;小橋邊,又一家。或許此地自古已極度市井化,人並不像鄉村式的每天在家自烹自食,很習於隨時在外間街巷里弄歇歇坐坐,喝點什麼、吃點什麼。 而咖啡館,又是跨國界的地標,任何人不畏進入。不同於餐館,不諳日本菜的外地客,進餐館常感猶豫。而咖啡館,於任何人皆感熟悉。至若咖啡這樣東西,早已是國際語言,如音樂,人人說得出對它的感受。 君不見那些深閱指南、背著背包的西洋青年男女,適才在寺院中抬頭細審各景點的精妙細節,全神貫注備極嚴肅,像是此行最緊要大事,美則美矣,感受亦甚豐足,然而臉上並不見得流露怡悅之容,直到這當兒走進咖啡館,見到了桌椅人聲,嗅到了熟悉的香味,一邊卸下背包,他的臉,這時才綻開了笑容。 咖啡館讓他有家的感覺。 (舒國治 , 2006) :  京都的咖啡館,可謂三步一家、五步一店,多得不可勝數。有時巷弄一轉角,便一家;小橋邊,又一家。或許此地自古已極度市井化,人並不像鄉村式的每天在家自烹自食,很習於隨時在外間街巷里弄歇歇坐坐,喝點什麼、吃點什麼。 而咖啡館,又是跨國界的地標,任何人不畏進入。不同於餐館,不諳日本菜的外地客,進餐館常感猶豫。而咖啡館,於任何人皆感熟悉。至若咖啡這樣東西,早已是國際語言,如音樂,人人說得出對它的感受。 君不見那些深閱指南、背著背包的西洋青年男女,適才在寺院中抬頭細審各景點的精妙細節,全神貫注備極嚴肅,像是此行最緊要大事,美則美矣,感受亦甚豐足,然而臉上並不見得流露怡悅之容,直到這當兒走進咖啡館,見到了桌椅人聲,嗅到了熟悉的香味,一邊卸下背包,他的臉,這時才綻開了笑容。 咖啡館讓他有家的感覺。 (舒國治 , 2006) V. S. Naipaul, The Enigma of Arrival.:  V. S. Naipaul, The Enigma of Arrival. Such a big judgment about a city I had just arrived in! But that way of feeling was something I carried within myself. The older people in our Asian-Indian community in Trinidad—especially the poor ones, who could never manage English or get used to the strange races—looked back to an India that became more and more golden in their memory. They were living in Trinidad and were going to die was passed down to me. I didn’t look back to India, couldn’t do so; my ambition caused me to look ahead and outwards, to England; but it led to a similar feeling of wrongness. (Naipaul 130) “I had come to London as to a place I knew very well. I found a city that was strange and unknown—in its style of houses, and even in the names of its districts; as strange as my boardinghouse, which was quite unexpected; a city as strange and unread-about as the Englishness of South Wind, which I had bought in New York for the sake of its culture” (Naipaul 134):  “I had come to London as to a place I knew very well. I found a city that was strange and unknown—in its style of houses, and even in the names of its districts; as strange as my boardinghouse, which was quite unexpected; a city as strange and unread-about as the Englishness of South Wind, which I had bought in New York for the sake of its culture” (Naipaul 134) I lost a faculty that had been part of me and precious to me for years. I lost the gift of fantasy, the dream of the future, the far-off place where I was going. At home I had lived most intensely in the cinema, where, before the fixed-hour shows, the cinema boys, to shout out daylight or electric street light, closed the double doors all around and untied the long cords that kept the high wooden windows open” (Naipaul 134).:  I lost a faculty that had been part of me and precious to me for years. I lost the gift of fantasy, the dream of the future, the far-off place where I was going. At home I had lived most intensely in the cinema, where, before the fixed-hour shows, the cinema boys, to shout out daylight or electric street light, closed the double doors all around and untied the long cords that kept the high wooden windows open” (Naipaul 134). Metropolitan—what did I mean by that? I had only a vague idea. I meant material which would enable me to compare with or match certain writers. And I also meant material that would enable me to display a particular kind of writing personality: J. R. Ackerley to Hindoo Holiday, perhaps, making notes under a dinner table in India…” (Naipaul 135).:  Metropolitan—what did I mean by that? I had only a vague idea. I meant material which would enable me to compare with or match certain writers. And I also meant material that would enable me to display a particular kind of writing personality: J. R. Ackerley to Hindoo Holiday, perhaps, making notes under a dinner table in India…” (Naipaul 135). Slide31:  That journey back—from the island and continent I had gone to see with my new vision, the corner of the New World I had just written about, from there to the United States and Canada, and then to England—that journey back to England so mimicked and parodied the journey of nineteen years before, the journey of the young man, the boy almost, who had journeyed to England to be a writer, in a country where the calling had some meaning, that I couldn’t but be aware of all the cruel ironies. (Naipaul 102) Slide32:  If there was a place, at this stage of my career, where I could fittingly celebrate my freedom, the fact that I had made myself a writer and could now live as a writer, it was here, on this island which had fed my panic and my ambition, and nurtured my earliest fantasies. And just as, in 1956, at that first return, I had moved from place to place, so see it shrink from the place I had known in my childhood and adolescence, so now I moved from place to place to touch it with my mood of celebration, to remove from it the terror I had felt in these places for various reasons at different times. (Naipaul 152) Slide33:  “In order to do more of this kind of writing, it was necessary for me to acknowledge more of myself. I soon had the opportunity. Not long after finishing that first travel book, I went to India, to do another. This time I left from England. India was special to England; for two hundred years there had been any number of English travelers’ accounts and, latterly, novels” (Naipaul 153). “But Trinidad itself, the starting point, the center—it could no longer hold me. It was no longer connected in my mind with an Atlantic crossing, a journey by ship over a fortnight, with the ship ritual, the change of the weather , the putting back of the clocks every other morning, the colors of the sea and the sky, the waves and swells, the rainbow-short spray, the dolphins , the flying fish that, once one entered Caribbean waters,…” (Naipaul 154).:  “But Trinidad itself, the starting point, the center—it could no longer hold me. It was no longer connected in my mind with an Atlantic crossing, a journey by ship over a fortnight, with the ship ritual, the change of the weather , the putting back of the clocks every other morning, the colors of the sea and the sky, the waves and swells, the rainbow-short spray, the dolphins , the flying fish that, once one entered Caribbean waters,…” (Naipaul 154). 石川欽一郎,水彩畫與台灣風光 (1908):  領台十餘年後的今天,日本還有很多人一直不知道台灣,我希望至少讓這些不幸福的人們知道日本第一的台灣風景。或許也有人覺得我說台灣是日本第一風景太過份了些,但是我卻深信不疑,並且相信東京的畫家友人看了也一定會這麼想。僅拿台北與日本相比較,首先讓人覺得有些與京都彷彿相似。淡水河可比於鴨川(又稱加茂川)。媲美比叡愛宕的大屯、觀音等群山圍繞著城市。吉田白河就以圓山一帶來比擬,和尚洲(河上洲、蘆洲)附近好比嵯峨野,台北南區的古亭庄相當於京都南端的伏見。 石川欽一郎,水彩畫與台灣風光 (1908) 石川欽一郎,水彩畫與台灣風光 (1908):  石川欽一郎,水彩畫與台灣風光 (1908) 也不必要勉強在此一一類比,兩地大體的山容水色相當近似,台北的色彩看起來還更加地美。紅簷黃壁搭配綠竹林效果十分強烈,相思樹的綠呈現日本內地所未曾見的沈著莊嚴感,在湛藍青空搭配下更為美妙。 石川欽一郎,〈麗島餘錄〉(1926):  臺灣的山岳卻無論如何也沒有日本的淒涼壯烈感,我想這是因為台灣島亮麗的光線以及色彩鮮豔的緣故,日本阿爾卑斯山一帶鼠灰的顏色總令人覺得可怕,但這裡(台灣)連山都是可愛嬌美的。因此,和日本山脈那種崇高的感覺或神靈之氣相較,感覺相當不一樣。然而那麼熱鬧的話,天狗也不會喜歡住在那裡罷,即使六根清靜也無法達到本心的境地,你以為如何? 石川欽一郎,〈麗島餘錄〉(1926) 石川欽一郎,〈台灣的山水〉(1932):  石川欽一郎,〈台灣的山水〉(1932) 台灣山水的美就如期所直接呈現的,如眼睛所見的,換句話說,就是觀賞山水直接陳列的大自然美,沒有值得深入之處。 石川欽一郎,〈台灣的山水 〉(1932):  石川欽一郎,〈台灣的山水 〉(1932) 由於自然給人強烈的感覺,觀者毫無回想的餘裕。我們所讚賞台灣的自然美,將此豐富豔麗的色彩延展至畫布上,但是也僅止於美麗色彩的配置而已,更進一步想發現所謂深奧的精神就不容易了,山水美的鑑賞家也大多都停留在表面而已,總之,台灣的山水之美缺少能夠啟發人們精神性思考的要素,實為遺憾。

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