Published on January 9, 2008
CONFLICTS AMONG COUNTRIES: CONFLICTS AMONG COUNTRIES CAUSES OF NATIONAL CONFLICTS WHY DO CONFLICTS OCCUR AMONG COUNTRIES?: WHY DO CONFLICTS OCCUR AMONG COUNTRIES? We have seen : Competition for Scarce Natural Resources Conflict over fishing grounds Conflict over water supplies Now we shall look at Different Values and Beliefs Conflict between Democracy and Communism Competing Claims over Territory Conflict over border Different Values and Beliefs: Different Values and Beliefs CONFLICT BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND COMMUNISM DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNISM: DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNISM End of WWII : USA and USSR emerged as the two major powers in the world USA : Democratic political system USSR : Communist System These political systems became competing models for countries that had become independent after the war Result : A world divided between communist and democratic countries DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNISM: DEMOCRACY VS COMMUNISM Suspicions increased between each other Each claimed to be a superior system Each convinced that the other wanted to destroy their way of life Much fear and suspicion existed although there was no direct war One example of conflict arising from ideological differences is that between North and South Korea NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA Before WWII, Korea was occupied by Japan Japanese surrender in Aug 1945 : the Korean Peninsula was divided into two at the 38th Parallel [Remember Michael of “Who wants to be a millionaire?”? He had to answer this question!] Both US and USSR agreed to this division Soviet troops would occupy the northern part of Korea temporarily while Americans occupied the south Both forces would later withdraw so that the UN could organise an election for a reunited Korea NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA 1947 : UN called for an election to establish a single government for a reunited Korea USSR refused to allow an election in the north and created a Democratic People’s Republic of Korea or North Korea Capital was at Pyongyang North Korea became a communist country NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA Aug 1948 : Elections held in the south The independent Republic of Korea or South Korea was formed Capital : Seoul South Korea had the support of USA Thus, there were two separate countries in the Korean Peninsular NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA 1949 : Soviet and American troops had withdrawn from North and South Korea Governments of the two Koreas each claimed the right to rule the whole Korean Peninsula 1949 to 1950 : Frequent border clashes broke out between North and South Korea Jun 1950 : War broke out when North Korea suddenly invaded South Korea in an attempt to unite the Korean Peninsula under communism Slide12: USA and its allies agreed to help defend South Korea with the support of the UN Afraid that communism would spread to the south Did not want communists to extend their influence into South Korea NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA UN troops used Pusan as their base, a major port at the southern tip of Korea that possessed an airfield They attacked and defeated the North Koreans Captured Inchon and Seoul Instead of ending the war, the American President, with the approval of the UN, ordered an invasion of North Korea UN Partisan Forces, Korea VIDEO CLIP: VIDEO CLIP NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA The Chinese communists had come into power in China in 1949 They warned that they would attack if the UN troops crossed the 38th Parallel into North Korea They would not allow their North Korean ally to be totally defeated Nor would they allow UN troops to be near China’s border The warning was ignored Slide16: End Oct 1950 : UN troops not only reached Pyongyang but also further north to the Yalu River, the border between NK and China Slide19: China felt threatened and moved into NK Mid-Jan 1951 : Chinese army pushed UN troops back into SK and occupied Seoul Slide21: UN troops counter-attacked and drove the Chinese back to the 38th Parallel NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA: NORTH VS SOUTH KOREA The invasion of SK quickly became a bigger conflict involving USA and its Western allies on the one hand and China on the other Finally in 1953, an agreement was signed to stop the fighting A demilitarised zone was created between NK and SK Up to today, the Korean Peninsula remains divided as such The Korean was the first time in history when a number of countries grouped together to prevent one country from forcibly taking over another and changing its way of life PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE: PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE The photos in the leaflet were taken from an American pilot shot down north of the DMZ. It was used by North Korea for psy-war. PARTISAN HONOR MEDAL: PARTISAN HONOR MEDAL Awarded to Korean and American personnel who served with the 8157th and 8240th Army Units CIVILIAN VICTIMS: CIVILIAN VICTIMS This young woman was killed moments before, doubtless by stray or inadvertent fire from advancing UN forces, as she struggled through soaking brush, desperately seeking safety for her small family. Hair still neatly parted, she lies where she fell backwards into an irrigation ditch. Her arms, no longer able to hold and protect, thrown wide in death. Her children, swaddled in their clean blankets, know something truly terrible has happened, but can't understand what. IN MEMORIAL…..: IN MEMORIAL….. IN MEMORIAL…..: IN MEMORIAL….. Competing Claims Over Territories: Competing Claims Over Territories CONFLICT OVER BORDER India’s Border Conflicts: India’s Border Conflicts Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border 1947 : India gained independence from Britain Also inherited the frontier drawn by the British Inherited several border disputes as well We will study the Sino-Indian border dispute today China protested that it had not agreed to the frontier drawn by the British Problem : Difficult to have a clear border between China and India – much of their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border 1947 : India gained independence from Britain Also inherited the frontier drawn by the British China protested that it had not agreed to the frontier Problem : Difficult to have a clear border between China and India – much of their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border Two border regions became areas of conflict between India and China Aksai Chin plateau on the western end of the India-China frontier North-east Frontier Agency (NEFA) on the eastern end of the India-China frontier near Burma (now known as the union territory of Arunachal Pradesh according to Compton’s Encyclopedia Online). Aksai Chin Plateau: Aksai Chin Plateau Aksai Chin Plateau: Aksai Chin Plateau Aksai Chin Plateau: Aksai Chin Plateau Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border Late 1950s : China contested India’s presence in several places along the frontier China : unwilling to negotiate seriously over the matter Did not want to commit themselves to a definite boundary 1958 : China announced it had built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border Indian government of course protested Argued that road violated its territorial rights China argued that border had not been fixed Thus did not violate India’s territorial rights India in turn claimed that its border with China was clearly defined 1959 : Tension worsened when fighting broke out in the NEFA and the Aksai Chin plateau Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border Mid-1961 : China occupied had occupied more territories which India regarded as its own Indian government demanded return of these territories but China refused 1962 : War broke out between China and India Fortunately it ended just as quickly Till 1990s, the territorial conflicts between China and India was still not resolved There had been a number of border incidents since the 1962 war Conflict over Border: Conflict over Border Indian soldiers at a border post during the 1962 war with China. (Photo courtesy: Press Information Bureau) CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION War is often a last resort Countries in conflict with each other sometimes try to resolve their differences peacefully Consequences of war are many and intense Thousands die and many wounded; both military and civilians War also disrupts a country’s stability and development Next chapter : How countries try to maintain peace
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