05 dna genome

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Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Baverly_gal

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology: 3.c – Evaluate impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment 3.f – Research and describe the history of biology and contribution of scientists 4.a – Identify the parts of a cell 6.a – Describe components of DNA and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA 6.b – Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and RNA 6.f – Identify and analyze karyotypes 10.a – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms 10.b – Compare the interrelationship of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole Slide2:  Previous Lesson Human Development and Stem Cells Slide3:  Question: What two major processes must occur for a zygote to develop into an adult human being? Human Development Involves:  Human Development Involves Addition of more cells through mitosis Creation of adult cells with special functions through cell differentiation, creating about 210 different tissues in the body Slide5:  Question: What is an embryonic stem cell and why does it have potential to revolutionize medicine? Fig. 22.12:  Fig. 22.12 Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells in the blastocyst Slide7:  Potential of Stem Cell Research Based on: Time, July 23, 2001 Slide8:  Question: Why is there a controversy over stem cells? Fig. 22.12:  Fig. 22.12 Harvesting of embryonic stem cells means destruction of an embryo that could live if implanted in the uterus Excess blastocysts from fertility clinics Today’s Lesson DNA and the Human Genome Project:  Today’s Lesson DNA and the Human Genome Project Slide11:  DNA Cloning Cancer Individualism Gene Therapy Human Genome Project DNA Fingerprinting Human Development Genetic Diseases DNA is the Blueprint for Life:  DNA is the Blueprint for Life Each person has a unique complement of DNA Each person to have a unique complement of proteins Each person having a unique appearance and behavior which causes which contributes to THE BIG PICTURE Overview of Lesson:  Overview of Lesson Humans as hunks of protein DNA and protein synthesis Human genome project Slide14:  Humans may be made of up to 2 million different types of proteins Functions of Protein Structural muscle, hair Chemical antibodies, hormones, enzymes All of the chemical reactions in cells are regulated by enzymes Slide15:  Proteins are chains of amino acids, usually a few hundred amino acids long AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA What are proteins made of? Slide16:  Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Examples of Amino Acids Slide17:  Note: a chain of amino acids is forming as water is removed and amino acids bond together Formation of a Protein Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Slide18:  Protein structure is more than just a chain of amino acids Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Slide19:  Question: How do we make millions of different proteins out of only 20 different amino acids? Answer: The identity and function of each protein is determined by its amino acid sequence and folding Slide20:  Amino Acid Sequence of Hemoglobin Sickle-cell hemoglobin Box shows the one amino acid difference in normal versus sickle-cell hemoglobin Normal hemoglobin Slide21:  Based on: Harvard Family Health Guide, 1999 Red Blood Cells Slide22:  How Do We Get Amino Acids? Eleven of 20 amino acids can be made by the human body Nine of 20 amino acids cannot be made by the human body. These nine are the “essential amino acids” that must be included in the diet on a daily basis Overview of Lesson:  Overview of Lesson Humans as hunks of protein DNA and protein synthesis Human genome project Slide24:  The structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) was discovered in 1950s by Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin DNA has a ladder-like shape Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill DNA is not a protein, but rather it is the instructions for making proteins:  DNA is not a protein, but rather it is the instructions for making proteins Slide26:  DNA Structure Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Why is DNA shaped like a ladder?:  Why is DNA shaped like a ladder? Slide28:  DNA contains a linear base code that… G - C C - G T - A A - T A - T Proteins which are linear sequences of amino acids Controls production of… Amino acid Amino acid Amino acid The Way DNA’s Code Works Three nucleotides in DNA code for one amino acid in a protein:  The Way DNA’s Code Works Three nucleotides in DNA code for one amino acid in a protein Slide30:  C G C T A A C G A Sequence of bases in DNA are read as triplet codes codes for DNA REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Amino acid Amino acid Amino acid So how does DNA regulate protein synthesis in a cell?:  So how does DNA regulate protein synthesis in a cell? Slide32:  DNA is part of the chromosomes in cells Humans have 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes in each cell Each chromosome has specific genes Most genes code for the production of specific proteins Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill DNA in the chromosomes of the nucleus:  DNA in the chromosomes of the nucleus Protein synthesis at the ribosomes DNA Control of Protein Synthesis in Each Cell of the Body Determines Slide34:  Chromosomes (containing strands of DNA) are in nucleus, the control center of cell Proteins are made at ribosomes, the protein manufacturing sites of cell Animal Cell Based on: Raven et al., Biology, McGraw Hill DNA Control of Protein Synthesis:  DNA Control of Protein Synthesis DNA uncoils and one strand is used to produce messenger RNA (mRNA) in nucleus mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosomes with copy of blueprint at the ribosomes, amino acids are linked together as specified by the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA Slide36:  DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Slide37:  Messenger RNA Codons Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill Construction of a Building:  Construction of a Building Blueprint in the foreman’s office contains the instructions for the building Workers take information from the office to the building site Workers assemble the building out of concrete and steel Overview of Lesson:  Overview of Lesson Humans as hunks of protein DNA and protein synthesis Human genome project Slide40:  The Human Genome Defined as the sum total of genes in a human Estimates are 30,000 genes in each human controlling production of approximately 2 million different proteins Each gene consists of an average of several thousand bases Total number of nucleotides is about 3 billion per human cell Slide41:  Human Genome Project The project began in the late 1980s supported by 15 billion dollars Goal of the project was to sequence the roughly 3 billion chemical letters in DNA that comprise the genetic code of humans Many scientists said it could not be done Project was completed in 2000 - or was it? Slide42:  The sequence of letters in DNA for the human genome is known, but the gene-protein relationships are unknown It is like having the numbers in a phone book without the associated names We are learning the identity of new genes each day What We Don’t Know about DNA Slide43:  Human Proteome Research Scientists will take decades to figure out which proteins go with which genes All of today’s medicine will seem medieval once proteomics studies begin to link proteins and genes because many human diseases are genetically based Slide44:  Next Lesson Individuality and Cloning

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