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Published on August 2, 2007

Author: Dabby

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Term Paper Suggestions: #5:  Term Paper Suggestions: #5 Writing text citations: Two general approaches. Assume you want to cite Bandura regarding the importance of self processes (e.g., self-monitoring). You could use either of the following: 'According to Bandura (1999), self processes are the critical components of human functioning.' OR 'Self processes are the critical components of human functioning (Bandura, 1999).' Psychology 1230: Psychology of Adolescence:  Psychology 1230: Psychology of Adolescence Don Hartmann Fall 2006 Supplementary Lecture 5: © Bandura More on Imitation as a Process:  More on Imitation as a Process Basic rather than derived process More efficient alternative to shaping— response acquisition mechanism emphasized by Skinnerians Has elaborate theory of the process of imitation learning. The Process of Imitation involves…:  The Process of Imitation involves… Attending to the 'model' Coding the behavior into memory Retrieving the behavior from memory Performance of the modeled behavior, and The role of incentives Imitation May Not Always Be Desirable:  Imitation May Not Always Be Desirable More on the Characteristics of Bandura’s (early) Theory with Emphasis on Learning:  More on the Characteristics of Bandura’s (early) Theory with Emphasis on Learning Distinguished between learning andamp; performance We often, and incorrectly, infer what an individual knows from what that person does Learning Vs. Performance:  Learning Vs. Performance Still More of the Characteristics of Bandura’s (early) Theory with Emphasis on Social Context:  Still More of the Characteristics of Bandura’s (early) Theory with Emphasis on Social Context Both early version (Social Learning Theory) and later version (Social Cognitive Theory) emphasized the social context in which learning occurred Social variables are important in determining what we learn, how much, etc. Bandura: Nurture over Nature:  Bandura: Nurture over Nature From Bandura: In lower mammalian species, for example, sexual activities are completely regulated by gonadal hormones; among primates sexual behavior is partially independent of physiological stimulation; while human eroticism is exceedingly variable and essentially independent of hormonal regulation....thus, one would induce sexual behavior in a rodent Don Juan by administering androgen, whereas presenting him lascivious pictures of a well‑endowed mouse would have no stimulating effects whatsoever. By contrast, one would rely on sexually‑valenced social stimuli, rather than on hormonal injections for producing erotic arousal in human males. Bandura References:  Bandura References http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/Bandura/Index.html Selected influential books from each decade Adolescent aggression (1959, with R. Walters) Social learning and personality development (1963, with R. Walters) Aggression: Social learning analysis (1973) Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory (1986) Self-efficacy: The exercise of control (1997) Overview of Bandura Lecture:  Overview of Bandura Lecture Current Social Cognitive Theory Evaluation Summary Next: Method I (Lecture #6) Social Cognitive Theory: General Characteristics:  Social Cognitive Theory: General Characteristics View of people: self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating Importance of Cognitive Processes how we label, think about, andamp; talk to ourselves our ATTRIBUTIONS (what we say or think) about the causes of our and other’s behavior and the like how we expect to perform: our EFFICACY‑EXPECTATIONS Self Efficacy: I ?:  Self Efficacy: I ? Definition: Our expectations for success. Efficacy expectations determine the effort and persistence we display in our behavior. Self Efficacy: II:  Self Efficacy: II Efficacy expectations develop as a function of: Vicarious—watching someone else do it direct, and symbolic instructional experiences (e.g., reading about someone else’s experiences). ? Social Cognitive Theory: Importance of Self-Processes:  Social Cognitive Theory: Importance of Self-Processes Importance of Self Processes—particularly self regulation self‑monitoring standard-setting self‑reinforcement Self-reflection Think of how much of your behavior is controlled by self processes—perhaps that were once external (e.g., performed by parents) A Self-Process: Self-Reinforcement/Punishment:  A Self-Process: Self-Reinforcement/Punishment Triadic Reciprocity: Behavior, the Person, & the Environment: I:  Triadic Reciprocity: Behavior, the Person, andamp; the Environment: I Behavior Person Environment Triadic Reciprocity: Behavior, the Person, & the Environment: II:  Triadic Reciprocity: Behavior, the Person, andamp; the Environment: II A boy who favors TV programs with aggressive content (person variable) chooses to spend his evenings in front of a TV set tuned to violent programs (an environment variable). [P→E] While watching attentively (a behavior variable), the boy learns new modes of aggressing toward people and also learns that aggression is usually successful in that aggressive people often get what they want. [B→P] These newly acquired expectations (a person variable) may then lead the boy to attempt these newly acquired forms of aggressive behavior…[P→B] A Bandurian Analysis of an Adolescent’s Moral Behavior:  A Bandurian Analysis of an Adolescent’s Moral Behavior Standards (models) child exposed to? Direct Vicarious Symbolic Consequences for truth-telling and dishonesty—dispensed by others andamp; self Labeling—by others andamp; self Consistency of treatment across settings Summary of Bandura:  Summary of Bandura The Old: Social Learning Theory—which we talked about during the last class period The New: Social Cognitive Theory Next: Method I (Lecture #6) Go in Peace! Highlights from the Autobiographical Term Paper:  Highlights from the Autobiographical Term Paper Read the handout, and again, and again, and again just prior to handing in your paper. Remember to meet with me about the paper! Do not use only WEB references; get into the psychology database, PsycInfo. Find an editor, either in the class of outside of class. Check the frequently made errors section. Feel free to use first person pronouns. Use the active voice whenever possible (e.g., not 'the book was taken to me by my mother' but instead 'my mother took the book to me')

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