04 TransmissionMedia

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Information about 04 TransmissionMedia

Published on March 24, 2008

Author: Donato

Source: authorstream.com

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition:  William Stallings Data and Computer Communications 7th Edition Chapter 4 Transmission Media Overview:  Overview Guided - wire Unguided - wireless Characteristics and quality determined by medium and signal For guided, the medium is more important For unguided, the bandwidth produced by the antenna is more important Key concerns are data rate and distance Design Factors:  Design Factors Bandwidth Higher bandwidth gives higher data rate Transmission impairments Attenuation Interference Number of receivers In guided media More receivers (multi-point) introduce more attenuation Guided Transmission Media:  Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial cable Optical fiber Transmission Characteristics of Guided Media :  Transmission Characteristics of Guided Media   Twisted Pair:  Twisted Pair Twisted Pair - Applications:  Twisted Pair - Applications Most common medium Telephone network Between house and local exchange (subscriber loop) Within buildings To private branch exchange (PBX) For local area networks (LAN) 10Mbps or 100Mbps Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons:  Twisted Pair - Pros and Cons Cheap Easy to work with Low data rate Short range Twisted Pair - Characteristics:  Twisted Pair - Characteristics Analog Amplifiers every 5km to 6km Digital Use either analog or digital signals repeater every 2km or 3km Limited distance Limited bandwidth (1MHz) Limited data rate (100MHz) Susceptible to interference and noise Unshielded and Shielded TP:  Unshielded and Shielded TP Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ordinary telephone wire Cheapest Easiest to install Suffers from external EM interference Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Metal braid or sheathing that reduces interference More expensive Harder to handle (thick, heavy) UTP Categories:  UTP Categories Cat 3 up to 16MHz Voice grade found in most offices Twist length of 7.5 cm to 10 cm Cat 4 up to 20 MHz Cat 5 up to 100MHz Commonly pre-installed in new office buildings Twist length 0.6 cm to 0.85 cm Cat 5E (Enhanced) –see tables Cat 6 Cat 7 Coaxial Cable:  Coaxial Cable Coaxial Cable Applications:  Coaxial Cable Applications Most versatile medium Television distribution Ariel to TV Cable TV Long distance telephone transmission Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously Being replaced by fiber optic Short distance computer systems links Local area networks Coaxial Cable - Transmission Characteristics:  Coaxial Cable - Transmission Characteristics Analog Amplifiers every few km Closer if higher frequency Up to 500MHz Digital Repeater every 1km Closer for higher data rates Optical Fiber:  Optical Fiber Optical Fiber - Benefits:  Optical Fiber - Benefits Greater capacity Data rates of hundreds of Gbps Smaller size & weight Lower attenuation Electromagnetic isolation Greater repeater spacing 10s of km at least Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics:  Optical Fiber - Transmission Characteristics Act as wave guide for 1014 to 1015 Hz Portions of infrared and visible spectrum Light Emitting Diode (LED) Cheaper Wider operating temp range Last longer Injection Laser Diode (ILD) More efficient Greater data rate Wavelength Division Multiplexing Slide18:  Lab 1 (OPNET) is due on next Tuesday (September 26) Follow the same submission format as specified in the last email. Slide19:  Problems for Chapter 3 Problem1:Television Channels are 6 MHz wide. How many bits/sec can be sent if 4-level digital signals are used? Assume a noise less channel. Problem2: If a binary signal is sent over a 3KHz channel whose SNR is 20 dB, what is the maximum data rate that can be achieved. Submission Format:  Submission Format OpNet Lab-1 is due today (Sep 26, 12 AM) Save your word document as follows: Your Full Name-Lab-Number  Syed-Rizvi-Lab-1 Don’t write doc at the end of your file. Write your full name (i.e.., Last name plus first name with a pace or – sign) Make sure that you have attached the document with the email No submission after the specified date and time Wireless Transmission Frequencies:  Wireless Transmission Frequencies 2GHz to 40GHz (Microwave Frequency) Highly directional Point to point Satellite 30MHz to 1GHz (Radio Frequency) Omnidirectional Broadcast radio 3 x 1011 to 2 x 1014 (Local Frequency) For Local applications Antennas:  Antennas Electrical conductor (or system of..) used to radiate electromagnetic energy or collect electromagnetic energy Transmission Radio frequency energy from transmitter Converted to electromagnetic energy By antenna Radiated into surrounding environment Reception Electromagnetic energy impinging on antenna Converted to radio frequency electrical energy Fed to receiver Same antenna often used for both Radiation Pattern:  Radiation Pattern Power radiated in all directions Not same performance in all directions Isotropic antenna is (theoretical) point in space Radiates in all directions equally Gives spherical radiation pattern Antenna Gain:  Antenna Gain Measure of directionality of antenna Power output in particular direction compared with that produced by isotropic antenna Measured in decibels (dB) Results in loss in power in another direction Terrestrial Microwave (TMW):  Terrestrial Microwave (TMW) Parabolic antenna Small beam Line of sight Long haul telecommunications Use especially for P2P applications Satellite Microwave (SM):  Satellite Microwave (SM) Satellite is relay station Satellite receives on one frequency amplifies or repeats signal transmits on another frequency Requires geo-stationary orbit Height of 35,784km Applications Television Long distance telephone Private business networks Satellite Point to Point Link:  Satellite Point to Point Link Satellite Broadcast Link:  Satellite Broadcast Link Broadcast Radio:  Broadcast Radio Omnidirectional (travel in all directions) Line of sight is over Doesn’t need parabolic antenna FM radio Wireless Propagation:  Wireless Propagation Signal travels along three routes Ground wave Follows contour of earth Up to 2MHz AM radio Sky wave Signal reflected from ionize layer of upper atmosphere BBC world service, Voice of America Line of sight Above 30Mhz Antennas must be physically aligned Atmosphare can reflect the smicrowave signal Sky Wave Propagation:  Sky Wave Propagation Ground Wave Propagation :  Ground Wave Propagation Line of Sight Propagation:  Line of Sight Propagation Impairments in Line of Sight Transmission:  Impairments in Line of Sight Transmission Free Space Loss Signal dispersion is a function of distance Ratio between power radiated to power received Greater for lower wavelength Antenna gain can be used to compensate the losses Also known as near far problem Refraction Each wireless medium has its own density Propagation speed is a function of density of the medium When medium changes, the result is refraction Refraction means change of direction Free Space Loss:  Free Space Loss Required Reading:  Required Reading Review Examples 4.1 to 4.4 HW#2: Due Date: Thursday, September 28 (in class timing) Need hard copy (typed or in hand writing) Problems 4.1 and 4.2 Term Paper (Phase I) Due Date: Thursday, September 28 (in class timing) Need Typed Hard Copy Follow Exact writing-format as provided in Term Paper specification No Late Submission and Electronic Copy is acceptable

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