03n 0203 ts00002 LEACH

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Published on November 19, 2007

Author: Me_I

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Slide2:  Contents General considerations for pulmonary drugs Case Study - Proventil-HFA Case Study – QVAR Lung delivery of peptides/proteins Lung delivery of i.v. antibiotics Conclusions General Preclinical Considerations:  General Preclinical Considerations Has the drug been to the site before? Is the local concentration at the new site higher than before? Are the usual metabolic pathways present in the new site? Are there new susceptible cell types (e.g. growth factor issues)? Will new or existing excipients cause problems (e.g. bronchospasm, membrane disruptors)? Will neutralizing or anaphylactic antibodies form? Proventil HFATM (AiromirTM) versus Albuterol CFC:  Proventil HFATM (AiromirTM) versus Albuterol CFC Same drug, different propellant Same amount of drug delivered Same particle size distribution Improved dosing characteristics Slide5:  Proventil HFA Ventolin Proventil-HFA Preclinical Program (registered in 40 countries) :  Proventil-HFA Preclinical Program (registered in 40 countries) Inhalation range-finding study in rats Inhalation range-finding in dogs 28-Day inhalation study in rats 28-Day inhalation study in dogs 90-day inhalation study in rats Inhalation teratology study in rats Slide7:  Clinical Efficacy Study Slide8:  Proventil HFA Preclinical Conclusions No preclinical surprises in two species No PK/ADME clinical surprises No efficacy surprises SO no further preclinical studies necessary QVARTM (HFA-BDP) versus CFC-Beclomethasone (CFC-BDP):  QVARTM (HFA-BDP) versus CFC-Beclomethasone (CFC-BDP) Same drug, different propellant Different amount of drug delivered Different particle size distribution Improved dosing characteristics Human Deposition Pattern:  Human Deposition Pattern QVAR Lung 59% 4% CFC-BDP 8% 1% Exhaled 1.1 microns 3.5 microns QVAR Preclinical Program (registered in 40 countries) :  QVAR Preclinical Program (registered in 40 countries) Inhalation range-finding study in rats Inhalation range-finding in dogs 14-Day inhalation study in rats 14-Day inhalation study in dogs 12-month inhalation study in dogs Inhalation teratology study in rats Pharmacokinetics Model predictions for QVAR:  Pharmacokinetics Model predictions for QVAR Mucocilary clearance Projected Serum Levels Based on Deposition Results:  Projected Serum Levels Based on Deposition Results Beclovent - 100a QVAR - 100a Oral depositionb 95mg 20mg 30mg 6mgc Lung depositionb 5mg 5mg 60mg 60mg Serum Total 25mg 66mg Ratio 1 2.6 : a assumes 100mg of beclomethasone dipropionate is delivered to the patient b assumes an oral bioavailability of 21% and a lung bioavailability of 100% c the formula represents amount deposited serum based on bioavailability Phase 1 Clinical Study Serum Concentrations of BDP After Single Inhaled Doses :  Phase 1 Clinical Study Serum Concentrations of BDP After Single Inhaled Doses Regression analysis of change from baseline in FEV1 as % predicted at week 6:  Regression analysis of change from baseline in FEV1 as % predicted at week 6 26 24 14 16 18 20 22 100 400 800 150 CFC-BDP Qvar Total daily dose (mcg/day) Relative dose ratio 2.6 (95% CI 1.1-11.6) 2.6 Change from baseline in FEV1 as % predicted Long-term asthma control: breakthrough asthma following 2:1 switch:  Long-term asthma control: breakthrough asthma following 2:1 switch HFA-BDP CFC-BDP 0 20 40 60 80 100 Day 1 Wk 4 Wk 8 Mth 4 Mth 6 Mth 8 Mth 10 Mth 12 % patients with no asthma related adverse events Kaplan Meier plot Slide18:  QVAR Preclinical Conclusions No preclinical surprises in two species No PK/ADME clinical surprises No efficacy surprises SO no further preclinical studies necessary Proteins/Peptides :  Proteins/Peptides There are numerous peptides with significant therapeutic activity in every field of medicine BUT, they have serious delivery problems Need to inject Time of action too short Native structures too susceptible to peptidases Slide20:  Local Lung versus Systemic Delivery Rule of thumb is that 2-5% of the i.v. dose reaches the lungs The other 95% adds to unwanted side-effects Insulin Preclinical / Clinical Issues:  Insulin Preclinical / Clinical Issues Insulin is present in virtually every cell Larger local lung concentrations than previously seen Insulin is a growth factor Insulin by any route induces antibody formation Leuprolide :  Leuprolide Analog of LHRH Treatment of endometriosis Treatment of prostate cancer Side effects inhibit its use Leuprolide PulmoSphere™ DPI:  Leuprolide PulmoSphere™ DPI PulmoSphere Particles :  PulmoSphere Particles Hollow Porous Ultra low density Self-Assembling Structures in Water:  Self-Assembling Structures in Water Leuprolide Preclinical / Clinical Issues:  Leuprolide Preclinical / Clinical Issues Larger local lung concentrations than previously seen Antibody question DSPC, DPPC excipients (normal components of lung surfactant) Slide28:  Inhalation versus i.v. of Antibiotic A in rats Antibiotic A inhalation in Dogs:  Antibiotic A inhalation in Dogs 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 0 10 20 30 40 50 Low Dose Mid Dose High Dose ng / mL Plasma Time After Start of Dosing (days) Plasma t1/2 = 28 hours Day 1 Day 14 Day 29 m g/g Lung Antibiotic Concentration Lung Tissue t1/2 = 19 days 4 orders of magnitude delta between lung and plasma Plasma likely to be undetectable at doses targeting MICs in lung Phase-1 Clinical Study of Antibiotic B :  Phase-1 Clinical Study of Antibiotic B 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Hours (time after end of inhalation) Serum Antibiotic B (ug/ml) PulmoSphere Antibiotic B, 85 mg Nebulized Antibiotic B, 300 mg Antibiotic B in Humans:  Antibiotic B in Humans Minutes to Dose Dry Powder Nebulizer Summary:  Summary A route change to inhalation can offer: Faster onset Higher bioavailability Freedom from injections Less side effects Preclinical requirements should be unique to each new change in route Preclinical programs should stress the exploration of known differences, not unsubstantiated speculation The fear of unknown and/or unreasonable preclinical and clinical requirements keeps many new routes for drug administration economically unattractive (especially for non-blockbuster category drugs) Future Biotech Inhalers:  Future Biotech Inhalers Insulin Growth factors (local & systemic) Interferons Lung surfactants Monoclonal antibodies Receptors Viral vectors

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