advertisement

03 menoni land-useplanning_01_ws2014

38 %
63 %
advertisement
Information about 03 menoni land-useplanning_01_ws2014
Education

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: LucaMarescotti

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Vulnerabilità e resilienza urbana e territoriale: come l’urbanistica e la pianificazione
territoriale possono contribuire a politiche di prevenzione.
Urban vulnerability and resilience: how planning may contribute to mitigation measures.
Lesson 1: unfortunately negative examples
(prof. Scira Menoni - Politecnico di Milano)
advertisement

3 marzo 2014 - 03 2014 Workshop Conoscenza e tecnologie appropriate per la sostenibilità e la resilienza in urbanistica Knowledge and Appropriate Technologies for Sustainability and Resilience in Planning Funda Atun, Maria Pia Boni, Annapaola Canevari, Massimo Compagnoni, Luca Marescotti, Maria Mascione, Ouejdane Mejri, Scira Menoni, Floriana Pergalani

LAUREA MAGISTRALE DELLA SCUOLA DI ARCHITETTURA E SOCIETÀ Laboratorio organizzato da Luca Marescotti

Vulnerabilità e resilienza urbana e territoriale: come l’urbanistica e la pianificazione territoriale possono contribuire a politiche di prevenzione. Urban vulnerability and resilience: how planning may contribute to mitigation measures. Lesson 1: unfortunately negative examples Scira Menoni

What can be done to mitigate risks? Risk assessment Risk mitigation measures: structural and non structural, long and short term Implementation tools: laws, regulations, directives, economic tools –insurance, incentives, taxes- voluntary….

Ulrich Beck reminds us of the fact the in risks imply a tightly coupled combination of “facts” and “values” that make any risk related decision neither purely technical nor purely political The complexity of risk conditions requires a  Suitable approach for example systemic

What can be done to mitigate risks? Risk assessment Risk mitigation measures: structural and non structural, long and short term Implementation tools: laws, regulations, directives, economic tools –insurance, incentives, taxes- voluntary….

R = f (H, V, E) 1 Hazard Vulnerability D = f( y, V) d(y) Risk RISK = HAZARD * VULNERABILITY (Exposed systems) 0

Hazard Vulnerability Brief definition Risk RISK = f ( HAZARD, VULNERABILITY, EXPOSURE) RISK measured in terms of expected damage HAZARD = characteristics of the dangerous agent (phenomena) VULNERABILITY= propensity to damage, fragility (Exposed systems)= number and dimension of people and goods in a dangerous area

Hazard analysis: GARGNANO - How strong? When? Return period VOBARNO TOSCOLANO MADERNO a ard iG od ag L GARDONE RIVIERA VILLANUOVA ROE` VOLCIANO SUL CLISI SALO` r 2.75 2.65 GAVARDO 2.55 2.25 2.45 2.35 2.15 2.05 1.95 - Where? - How long can it last? 1.85 1.65 1.75 1.55 1.45 1.35 1.25 1.15 1.05

Hazard analysis : what mitigation strategies? What can I do? Reduce the hazard potential (limited to a number of natural hazards)

Exposure analysis: How many people? How many houses, roads, factories? What can I do? Relocate move from the most hazardous areas

vulnerability A definition of vulnerability: ill people V how prone is a system to be damaged in case of a given stress R M number of people exposed to thevirus a measure of fragility, weakness

What is the benefit for risk management? core aspects of the various Scientific and technical domain Geographical and sociological domain * methods to measure vulnerability have been proposed and applied * in some cases there is still a confusion between expected damage and vulnerability ical references Aa.Vv., Natural disasters and vulnerability analysis. Report of expert group, Rep. Undro, July, 1979. Petrini V, Overview report Ecological field Climate change studies Systems Engineering * vulnerability is interpreted as * in the ecological field one the key concept to explain may find more reasoning differences in response to around resilience rather than disasters between countries vulnerability. Though, the and regions features of a resilient ecosystem can be easily labelled * there is a limited attempt to as lack of vulnerability identify indicators or * attempts to apply directly parameters to assess concepts taken from ecovulnerability logy to social system can be questioned * in climate change studies vulnerability is often interpreted as the lack of copying capacity and resilience. Concepts from the geographical and the ecological field are reshaped and restructured in climate change studies * vulenrability is a latent condition of particularly complex systems, resulting from interaction among parts and components "tightly coupled" * Vulnerability compounds physical, organisational, functional factors as well as management failures Dow K., Exploring differences in our common future(s): the meaning of vulenrability to global environmental change, in Geoforum, vol. 23, n.3, 1992 J. Kasperson, R. Kasperson et al., The human dimension of global environmental change, MIT University Press, 2003. Giarini O., H. Loubergé, La delusione tecnologica. I rendimenti decrescenti della tecnologia e la crisi della crescita economica, Mondadori, Milano, 1978. Gunderson L., C. Holling, Panarchy. Understanding transformation in human and natural systems Island press, 2002

Important for both vulnerability and resilience TEMPORAL DIMENSION * impact SPATIAL DIMENSION SCALE * core * emergency SYSTEMIC FACTORS * related to systems and components * corona * reconstruction * periphery * related to links among systems Response to crisis Physical ENVIRONMENT financial resources invested, people employed Social SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT impact emergency 1 10 first recovery 100 reconstruction 500 time in weeks advanced reconstruction REGION (Territorio) Economic SYSTEM

What can be done to prevent risks? Risk assessment Risk mitigation measures: structural and non structural, long and short term Implementation tools: laws, regulations, directives, economic tools –insurance, incentives, taxes- voluntary….

Risk prevention measures shaping a resilient/non resilient mitigation capacity, response and recovery Non structural measures Land use planning Emergency preparedness * re-develpment * Emergency plans * restauration * Training, exercises * relocation * zoning Structural measures Structural retrofitting levees Builidngs retrofitting Slope consolidation Buildings codes Avalanche defences * Early warning systems Support to implementation * Disclosure * Communication * Inspections * Insurance; * tax incentives; * td/p rights

Planners do different things in Europe dealing with spatial planning; summarizing and comprising different schools of thought and practice: rural to urban (development) Transform land uses urban to urban (restoration, redevelopment) urban to rural rural to rural urban to urban Preserve land uses

White, G., Kates, R. & Burton, I. 2001. Knowing better and losing even more: the use of knowledge in hazard management. Environmental Hazards 3(3): 81-92. Regarding the quality of construction and land uses Regarding “myths” regarding people’s behavior in disasters Regarding fallacies in crisis management

long term mitigation measures STRUCTURAL decreasing HAZARDS reducing EXPOSURE reducing physical - specific requirements to control buikldings vulnerability to various types of hazards (particularly seismic, but also avalanches and landlsides) VULNERABILITY social and economic built environment - improve citizens involvement in risk - need for stronger management: - ccepting building and land floodplain regulation and use restrictions; - environmental building permits control maintenance activities (forests, rivers) - in accepting for example building restrictions; - in "environment maintenance" activities (rivers, forests) - understimation of flood levels in different events (excluded possibility of overcoming "historic" catastrophies short term mitigation measures NON STRUCTURAL - difficulties in evacuating people in temporary settlements at a large distance from their original homes - plans should include feedback analysis and procedures to up date the plan according to lessons learnt - plans are often too generic - plans should consider the possibility of multi-site events that will put a dignificant pressure on civil protection - poor monitoring systems (particularly floods) in Eastern countries and Greece - ICT should be more carefully and extensively used to deal with the emergency - need of local forecasts for some hazards (fires, floods, landslides) - need of local forecasts for some hazards (fires, floods, landslides) - plans should be based on accurate scenarios - improve planning for crisis, including the need to plan for long emergencies - need to be prepared not only in traditionally "hot" periods regarding given risks (fires) - improve relationship with the media to be able disseminate messages during emergencies and guaranteeing "correct" information to the public - creating better coordination among civil protection forces - creating better coordination with critical infrastructures providers - business continuity plans also for the public sector - improving people's preparedness to face emergencies - need to provide stronger role to the EU Civil Protection natural environment - monocultural agricoltural practices should be avoided in areas prone to flooding and firest fires

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans Unesco 1977: “nothing has been done to discourage extensive tourist development close to the shore...Use of shoreline sites in on the increase in the Fiji, putting investemnts, visitors and Fijian people all at peril from rare but quite possible events”

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The local scale

“Stakeholders”: - Mayor, understands the issue and seems open to accept the revision of the PAT; - “Assessore” of urban planning wishing to ask experts mitigation measures for buildings; - Municipal technician, responsible of the municipal technical office, does not want us at all…

At the end: few weeks before municipal elections the PAT is approved in the muncipal assemblee m, without taking into account the comments of Italia Nostra

At the end: few weeks before municipal elections the PAT is approved in the muncipal assemblee m, without taking into account the comments of Italia Nostra

At the end within the pattern of the new plan (where is the river??) apparently the normative part of the plan takes into account the hydraulic and geological reports but in reality new development, new urban planning mistakes are hiding.

The story: on February 2011 I was invited by two representatives of a civic association born after the flood in 2010 in the muncipality of Caldogno, close to Vicenza in the Region of Veneto.

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The local scale

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The local scale

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The urban scale Substantial indifference of the “sustainability principle community” to risk prevention: The London Gateway Project

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The urban scale Communication is not just what we say: the construction of a fully equipped Congress Centre in Dresden after the 2002 Elbe flood

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses and urban plans. The regional scale

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses. Non urban uses

Examples of vulnerability created by wrong land uses. Non urban uses Photos by Carlo Giacomelli, 1955-1980

The effectiveness and the ….danger of structural mitigation measures (alone)

sustainability ~ risk prevention Sustainibility: exploiting the environment while keeping the natural capital for future generations... environmental damage human and economic losses Risk prevention: preventing mass victims and extensive losses due to some “extreme” event that may occur in the future...

sustainability ~ risk prevention What about environmental damage consequent to what are after all “natural events”, if we exclude industrial accidents? It will be shown that natural and human environments cannot be kept separated, therefore one may have a variety of combinations As a natural event becoming an environmental catastrophe:

In the case of hydrogeological risks, that will be considered today, unsustainible land uses may increase the hazard itself

sustainability ~ risk prevention Some measures that have been considered as “risk prevention” taken before a disaster or during emergencies proved to be extremely unsustainible: are those always acceptable in the name of prevention? Could things have been managed otherwise?

risk prevention ~ sustainability Resources/hazards: we may say that the margin is shaped by vulnerability or resilience

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

03 menoni land-useplanning_01_ws2014 - Education

4. What can be done to mitigate risks? Risk assessmentRisk mitigation measures: structural and non structural, long and short termImplementation tools ...
Read more