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Travel-Nature

Published on March 27, 2008

Author: Florence

Source: authorstream.com

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都市交通工学における社会的環境管理能力の指標化について:  都市交通工学における社会的環境管理能力の指標化について 技術評価班 都市大気質管理G 藤原章正 第2回COE研究会 2003/11/21 国際協力研究科大会議室 内容:  内容 社会的環境管理能力の関連要因 都市大気質管理能力の指標化 指標を用いた政策評価 1.社会的環境管理能力の関連要因:  1.社会的環境管理能力の関連要因 (1)環境指標  ・NOx,SO2,CO,CO2,PM,SPM,HC  ・モニタリング地点(数,密度),モニタリング技術(精度) (2)政策  ・都市開発関連・・・ゾーニング,グリーンベルト,ニュータウン,線引き,コンパクトシティ  ・交通関連・・・単体燃費向上,低公害車導入,モーダルシフト,ライフスタイル変更           TDM,ITS,信号制御,駐車対策,啓発活動,情報通信による代替            (3)都市構造と交通  ・都市構造・・・5型の都市交通戦略,線形都市,コンパクトシティ,公共交通指向都市  ・サービス水準・・・道路延長,車種別保有台数,走行台キロ,平均速度 (4)社会的アクター  ・政府・・・政策決定,マスタープラン  ・企業・・・政策を支援する技術開発(低公害車),組織的対応(エコ企業)  ・市民・・・住民参加(PI),個人・集団対応(環境意識) (2)政策:先進国の都市開発関連法制度 コンパクトシティ(海道清信2001)より抜粋:  (2)政策:先進国の都市開発関連法制度 コンパクトシティ(海道清信2001)より抜粋 先進国の都市変遷プロトタイプ 出典:Sustainable Urban Form(Newman 2000):  先進国の都市変遷プロトタイプ 出典:Sustainable Urban Form(Newman 2000) (3)都市構造と交通:  (3)都市構造と交通 2.都市大気質管理能力の指標化:  2.都市大気質管理能力の指標化 Policies Measures Knowledge Technology Human Resources Organizations Dynamic Urban Sustainability Evaluation Model :  Activity intensity Energy Consumption Technology Institution Urban Structure Capacity Travel Demand Transportation Restraints Population Vehicle ownership Economic activity time (t) Activity intensity Technology Institution Urban Structure Capacity Transportation Restraints Population Vehicle ownership time (t-1) Energy Consumption Travel Demand Economic activity Dynamic Urban Sustainability Evaluation Model Kernel Structure of Dynamic Urban Sustainability Evaluation Model:  Kernel Structure of Dynamic Urban Sustainability Evaluation Model Slide12:  San Diego Sacramento Amsterdam Portland Vienna New York Copenhagen Chicago Munich Washington Beijing London Ottawa Boston Seoul Paris Winnipeg Canberra San Francisco Surabaya Brussels Montreal Sydney Los Angeles Manila Stockholm Edmonton Adelaide Denver Kuala Lumpur Hong Kong Zurich Calgary Melbourne Detroit Jakarta Singapore Frankfurt Vancouver Brisbane Phoenix Bangkok Tokyo Hamburg Toronto Perth Houston Developing Asian cities Wealthy Asian cities European cities Canadian cities Australia cities US cities San Diego Sacramento Amsterdam Portland Vienna New York Copenhagen Chicago Munich Washington Beijing London Ottawa Boston Seoul Paris Winnipeg Canberra San Francisco Surabaya Brussels Montreal Sydney Los Angeles Manila Stockholm Edmonton Adelaide Denver Kuala Lumpur Hong Kong Zurich Calgary Melbourne Detroit Jakarta Singapore Frankfurt Vancouver Brisbane Phoenix Bangkok Tokyo Hamburg Toronto Perth Houston Developing Asian cities Wealthy Asian cities European cities Canadian cities Australia cities US cities Case study: An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities 1960-1990 7/47cities Slide13:  Low passenger in developing countries than developed countries Slide14:  High density in developing countries than developed couuntries Slide15:  Road expenditure per capita in developing countries is lower Slide16:  CO2 per capita in developing countries is lower Slide17:  NOx per capita in developing countries is lower Slide19:  1.Hong Kong, 2.Singapore, 3.Bangkok, 4.Kuala Lumpur, 5.Manila, 6.Seoul Slide20:  1.Hong Kong, 2.Singapore, 3.Bangkok, 4.Kuala Lumpur, 5.Manila, 6.Seoul Slide21:  1.Hong Kong, 2.Singapore, 3.Bangkok, 4.Kuala Lumpur, 5.Manila, 6.Seoul Slide22:  1.Hong Kong, 2.Singapore, 3.Bangkok, 4.Kuala Lumpur, 5.Manila, 6.Seoul Slide23:  GFI=0.618 (/p= per capita) Slide24:  3.指標を用いた政策評価 Source: Transport Policy Studies Review, Vol.5, No.4, pp.62-63, 2003, Measures Low-emission vehicle, fuel-efficient vehicle Car-related green tax Regulation of exhausted gas Eco-drive ④Fuel and vehicle Enhance fuel efficiency and reduce exhausted substances ITS Road pricing Signal control Safety drive ③Traffic flow Relax traffic congestion Tele-working Fuel tax, road pricing Travel demand management Off-peak commuting ②Travel Demand Reduce car ownership and usage and promote the shift to transit system Improvement of rail systems Land use taxation Control of land use Preference of Compact city and TOD ①Urban Structure Reduce travel opportunity and travel distance ⑧Technology Development, improvement and diffusion ⑦Economy Taxation ⑥Regulation Regulation – Management ⑤Enlightenment Attitude – Behavior Subject and Strategy 土地利用/交通統合モデルと環境負荷量:  土地利用/交通統合モデルと環境負荷量 GIS y3 = h (Trip distribution, inter-zonal level-of-service) y2 = g (Trip generation and attraction, inter-zonal travel utility) y4 = i (Car traffic volume, link capacity, link free speed) Trip generation and attraction Trip distribution Distribution of residence and.employment, transportation network y1 = f (Population, employment, car ownership,travel pattern) Link traffic volume and speed Car traffic volume Land use model Environmental intensity Trip generation and attraction model Trip distribution model Modal split model Traffic assignment model Travel accessibility Travel level-of-service Travel utility Policy evaluation Environmental evaluation model Car ownership model Urban structure Exhausted gas, energy consumption 自動車台数×距離×速度×原単位=負荷量 Transition of Urban Form in Hiroshima:  Transition of Urban Form in Hiroshima > 55000 < 10000 < 20000 < 35000 < 55000 > 50000 < 5000 < 15000 < 30000 < 50000 Spatial Distribution of Residents Spatial Distribution of Employment Locations 1975 1995 0 10 20km 1985 Centralized Suburbanizing Decentralized 1975 1995 1985 persons persons 7. Relation between Urban Form and Energy Consumption:  7. Relation between Urban Form and Energy Consumption (1) Transportation Energy Consumption per Person Residents Employment Centralized Suburbanizing Decentralized Decentralized Decentralized Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 Case5 166.2 164.4 154.0 155.1 134.6 120 130 140 150 160 170 (100 kcal/person/day) Suburbanizing Centralized Centralized Centralized Suburbanizing 潜在能力(SCEM)と顕在能力(成果):  潜在能力(SCEM)と顕在能力(成果) SCEM indicators System-making Self management System-working

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