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Information about 004

Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Taddeo

Source: authorstream.com

Contents:  Contents Ⅰ. Background Information Ⅱ. Text Structure Ⅲ. Language Point Ⅰ. Background Information:  Ⅰ. Background Information 1. Host family 2. Christians 3. Income tax 4. Health insurance BACK 1. Host family:  1. Host family Host family is the family that provides ‘board and room’, food, etc. for overseas visitors or students. 2. Christians:  2. Christians Christians are followers of Jesus with whom they have a personal relationship and whom they accept/receive into their lives as God’s son and the way to heaven. They believe that there is one God. Most Christians are members of one of three major groups --- Roman Catholic, Protestant, or Eastern Orthodox. Christianity has had an enormous influence on Western civilization, especially on art, business, government, and social relations. 3. Income tax:  3. Income tax Income tax is one of the taxations on individuals and companies. In many countries or regions such as the US and Western Europe income tax is one of the major financial resources of the government. It first appeared in France in 1793. 4. Health insurance:  4. Health insurance Health insurance is a system for the advance financing of medical expenses by means of fees or taxes paid into a common fund to pay for all or part of health services specified in an insurance policy or law. Slide9:  Ⅱ. Text Structure BACK What is the text mainly about?:  What is the text mainly about? Every year a great number of teenagers leave home to study in America. They go there for a variety of purposes, including increasing their command of English, finishing high school or understanding American ways of life. But no matter what purposes they have in mind, they can hardly avoid encountering such problems as different customs, new life style, homesick, etc., which may become a torture to them. Therefore, studying overseas is completely a cultural shock . How is the text organized?:  How is the text organized? The passage consists of three parts: the first part introduces the topic – studying abroad; the second part explains why people study abroad; the third analyses the problems and challenges people may encounter in the new land. The passage is a typical example of exposition developed by narration. The first part narrates the flight to Los Angeles, thus leading the reader to the topic. Through relating the life experiences of those overseas students, the general ideas of part two and three become vivid and convincing. Text Analysis-- Structure:  Text Analysis-- Structure (Paras. 1-2) Many people study in America every year. (Paras. 3-4) People study abroad for a variety of reasons. (Paras. 5-12) People encounter many problems in America. Through narrating the flight to Los Angeles, the author naturally leads the reader to the topic of the whole passage – studying abroad, which indicates the start of a new experience and a life without parents’ protection for a period of time . The author explains the purposes of people going abroad based on statistics and direct quotation from Gloria, a Brazilian student who studies in America, thus making the exposition more reliable and vivid. A general statement supported by specific reasons is a typical device applied to this part: the author first points out that “things are not always so easy”, and then devotes eight paragraphs to explaining the problems to be encountered in the new land. Slide13:  Part I Part II Part III Main idea? Every year a great number of people leave home to study in America, which indicates the start of a new experience. Devices for developing it? Narration (叙述法) (Paras. 1-2) Slide14:  Part I Part II Part III Main idea? People from different countries go to study in America for some reasons: to become fluent in English, complete high school and understand American way of life. Devices for developing it? Quotation (引言法) (Paras. 3-4) Slide15:  Part I Part II Part III Main idea? When in America, the foreign students inevitably encounter many problems, ranging from finding a host family to having little command of English. Devices for developing it? General-specific (总分法) (Paras. 5-12) Slide16:  Typical Paragraph of a General Statement Supported by Reasons (Para. 9) General statement: Another moment of tension descends while students await the domestic flight that will take them to their temporary home in America. The reasons: From then on it’s everyone for himself. No one really knows how she/ he will adapt to such new customs. Though most foreign students remain in California, some are sent to Texas, Arizona, Idaho, Oklahoma or Virginia. Ⅲ. Language Point:  Ⅲ. Language Point BACK departure (L1): n.:  departure (L1): n. the act of going away from somewhere Mr. Robert's departure from the company was quite a surprise to all of us. 罗伯特先生离开公司令大家都觉得惊讶。 The timetable shows arrivals and departures of all the flights. 时刻表标明了各次航班的到达和起飞时间。 action different from (what is usual or expected) To allow these changes would be a significant departure from tradition. 容忍这些改变意味着背离传统。 There can be no departure from the rules. 不能允许违反规则。 depart (L1): vi. :  depart (L1): vi. -- If you depart from a place, you leave it and start a journey to another place. His parents will depart for Hawaii tomorrow from Heathrow Airport. 他的父母明天将从希思罗机场起飞去夏威夷。 The train departed 10 minutes ago from Platform 5. 火车10分钟前从5号站台驶出。 depart from: behave in a way that is different from We won't do it because it departs from our usual practice. 这有悖于我们的常规做法,所以我们不会去做。 He is by no means a traditional man. On the contrary, he always departs from customs. 他决不是一个传统的人。相反,他做事常常不考虑风俗习惯。 at first glance (L2)::  at first glance (L2): At first glance, the problem seemed easy. 乍一看,那问题似乎很容易解决。 At first glance, the price of the new product is much higher than that of the old one. 乍—看,新产品的价格似乎比旧的要高很多。 routine (L2): a. usual, ordinary:  routine (L2): a. usual, ordinary Be patient. These are just routine methods. 耐心一点,这些只不过是例行程序。 It is just a routine medical examination, nothing to get worried about. 这只是例行体检,没什么可担心的。 routine: n. the practice of doing things in a fixed order The soldiers checked on everyone as a matter of routine. 士兵们按常规检查了每一个人。 2) a way of life that hardly changes Having a holiday is good for you to break from routine. 度假对改变一下日常生活是有好处的。 abroad (L4): ad.:  abroad (L4): ad. 1) in or to a foreign country or countries; away from one's own country They perform regularly both at home and abroad. 他们经常定期在国内外演出。 He always goes abroad on business. 他经常到国外出差。 2) being spread widely It is abroad that she plans to leave the company. 她要离开公司的消息已传开了。 There is plenty of enthusiasm abroad. 大伙儿劲头很足。 host (L5): n.:  host (L5): n. 1) If a country or a city is host of an event, it provides facilities for the event to take place. Beijing will be host of the Olympic Games in 2008.北京将主办2008年奥运会。 2) (of) great number The research group headed by Dr. Johnson is faced with a host of difficulties. 以约翰逊博士为首的研究小组面临着很多困难。 The unselfish man had hosts of friends. 这个无私大度的男子有很多朋友。 host: vt. act as host of Beijing will host the Olympic Games in the year of 2008.北京将于2008年主办奥运会。 average (L5)::  average (L5): n. the result you get when you add several numbers together and divide the total by the number of numbers; ordinary or usual standard The average of 10, 12, and 14 is 12. 10、12、14的平均值为12。 2) a. found by making an average; of the ordinary standard The average age of girls in our class is 18. 我们班女孩子的平均年龄是18岁。 3) v. find the average of, be as an average of The rainfall averages about 40 inches a year. 年平均降雨量为40英寸左右。 as long as (L8): on condition that:  as long as (L8): on condition that I am afraid of nothing as long as you stay with me. 只要你和我在一起,我什么都不怕。 You will surely achieve success as long as you work hard. 只要你努力工作,就一定会成功。 authority (L9): n.:  authority (L9): n. 1) (usu. pl.) person or group having the power to give orders or take action local authorities (市镇、郡、区等的)地方当局 2) [C] a person with special knowledge He is a famous international authority on shipbuilding. 他是国际著名的造船权威。 3) [U] power to give orders and make others obey The police had the authority to do a search. 警方有权进行搜查。 grant (L9)::  grant (L9): 1) vt. give (by sb. in authority) Tears came to her eyes when she accepted the certificate granted by the president. 她接过校长授予她的证书,泪水涌上了眼眶。 The US agreed to grant the new state diplomatic recognition. 美国同意给予这个新建立国家以外交承认。 2) n. [C] a thing given for a special reason, esp. money from the government They gave her a grant to study abroad for one year. 他们给了她一份助学金,供她出国学习一年。 dream of (L13): :  dream of (L13): Mr. White dreamed of living in a house with a nice garden and a big swimming pool. 怀特先生梦想着住在一幢有一个美丽的花园和一个 大游泳池的房子里。 He never dreamed of such an important position. 他从未想过得到这么重要的职位。 on (L13): ad. further in space or time:  on (L13): ad. further in space or time If you walk on, you'll come to the railway station. 继续往前走,你就会走到火车站了。 If any letters come, shall I send them on to your new address? 如果有信来,我是否要按你的新地址转给你? It's time to move on. 该继续往前走了。 specify (L14): state or name definitely:  specify (L14): state or name definitely He hasn't specified what action he would take in response to their behavior. 他还没有说明会对他们的行为采取什么应对措施。 The designer specified the size of bricks to be used. 设计师具体说明了所需砖头的尺寸。 It is specified that you may use a dictionary in the examination. 规定考试时可使用辞典。 plan on (doing sth.) (L17): prepare for:  plan on (doing sth.) (L17): prepare for We hadn't planned on twins! 我们没有生双胞胎的思想准备。 We were planning on just having a snack and catching the early train. 我们打算吃份快餐然后去赶早班火车。 have difficulty (in) doing sth. (L19): :  have difficulty (in) doing sth. (L19): Do you have difficulty getting up early? 你早上早起是不是有困难? Lily always had great difficulty finishing the mathematics assignment all by herself. 莉莉总是很难独立完成数学作业。 work out (L20): plan, decide:  work out (L20): plan, decide I have drawn up the main outlines, and we will have to work out all the details later. 我已经把大纲草拟好了, 随后我们得把所有的细节列出来。 I can't work out how to deal with it. 我想不出如何去解决这个问题。 a carefully worked-out plan 一项仔细拟定的计划 overseas (L24)::  overseas (L24): 1) a. (at, to, from, etc. places or countries) across the sea We are trying to build up overseas markets for our cars.我们正设法为我们的汽车开拓海外市场。 There are a lot of overseas students in America. 美国有许多海外的留学生。 2) ad. across the sea; abroad If you are living overseas, you may not have to pay tax in your own country. 如果你生活在海外,你可以不必在你自己的国家付税。 Many more people travel overseas for their holidays now than used to be the case. 现在去海外度假的人比以前多得多。 economize (on sth.) (L25): save (sth.):  economize (on sth.) (L25): save (sth.) We have to economize from now on since we have little money left. 我们剩下的钱不多了,所以从现在起得节俭些。 If the verb "economize" is followed by an object, we have to use the preposition "on". People are asked by the government to economize on fuel. 政府要求人民节约燃料。 We have to economize on water during the dry season. 在干旱季节我们必须节约用水。 hit the target (L26): succeed; manage:  hit the target (L26): succeed; manage You certainly hit the target when you said that he was lazy. 你说他懒,可真让你说中要害了。 He hit the target when he became president of the class. 他达到目的,当上了班长。 Christian (L27)::  Christian (L27): 1) a. of or believing in Jesus Christ a Christian country基督教国家 the Christian part of the city那个城市的基督教区 2) n. [C] a person who believes in and follows Jesus Christ He's a real Christian.他是个真正的基督徒。 She became a Christian, although she was brought up in a non-Christian family. 尽管她是在一个不信仰基督教的家庭里长大的, 可她却成了一名基督教徒. deduction (L29): n. [U, C] deducting:  deduction (L29): n. [U, C] deducting The pay I receive is paid after the deduction of tax. 我得到的工资是扣过税的。 Deductions of points will be made if those who compete do not follow the rules. 如果选手不遵守规则将被扣分。 cover (L30): vt. pay for, be enough for:  cover (L30): vt. pay for, be enough for The amount of money can hardly cover the loss. 这笔钱无法弥补损失。 The Greens had to economize because Mr. Green's income could hardly cover the expenses. 因为格林先生入不敷出,所以一家人只好省吃俭用。 budget (L31): v. :  budget (L31): v. The company has budgeted $10 million for advertising. 公司拨出1,000万美元作为广告费用。 You had better budget for the next month. 你最好为下个月做一下预算。 in the event of (L32): in case of:  in the event of (L32): in case of The bank promised that he could get a loan in the event of an emergency. 银行答应万一出现紧急情况可以贷款给他。 His cousin will come into all his property in the event of his death. 万一他去世,所有财产都将由他的堂弟继承。 insurance (L33): n.:  insurance (L33): n. 1) [U] (usu. sing.) (agreement made by a company or society or by the state, to provide) protection against loss, damage, illness, death, etc. in return for regular fees personal insurance人身保险 He sells life insurance.他卖人寿保险。 2) [U] fee paid by or to such a company, etc. When her husband died, she received £50,000 in insurance. 她丈夫去世时,她得到5万英镑的保险金。 If you have an accident with your car, the insurance goes up. 如果你在乘坐自己的小汽车时发生事故, 那么汽车的保险费就会上升。 do without (L35): :  do without (L35): I haven't enough money to buy a car, so I'll just have to do without (one). 我没有足够的钱买汽车,所以只好将就着不用车了。 accustomed (L35): a. usual, habitual:  accustomed (L35): a. usual, habitual He took his accustomed place before the fire. 他在火炉前的老地方坐了下来。 be/get/become accustomed to: be/get/become used to It took her some time to get accustomed to being the only lady in the office. 过了相当一段时间以后,她才渐渐适应了自己 作为办公室里惟一的女性的工作环境。 Have you been accustomed to his way of thinking? 你习惯了他的思维方式了吗? take on (L37): undertake:  take on (L37): undertake Why not have a rest? You are taking on too much work. 为什么不休息一下呢?你承担的工作太多了。 Don't take on responsibility that you cannot handle. 不要承担你所无法承担的责任。 lack (L38)::  lack (L38): 1) n. little; not enough of The police had to let him go for lack of evidence. 因为缺乏证据,警察只好让他走了。 The plan had to be cancelled for lack of money. 由于缺乏资金,那项计划不得不取消。 2) v. not have, be without What I lack in experience I make up in curiosity. 我用好奇心来弥补我所缺乏的经验。 He missed another chance just because be was lacking in courage. 他就是因为缺乏勇气才又失去了一次机会。 take along (L38): carry; take away:  take along (L38): carry; take away I took my music along, but no one asked me to sing. 我随身带着乐谱,可是没人邀我唱歌。 Why don't you take your mother along to the concert? I'm sure she would enjoy it. 你为什么不带你母亲一起来听音乐会, 我想她一会喜欢的。 to (one's) capacity (L39)::  to (one's) capacity (L39): This ship was filled to capacity with goods. 该船满载货物。 The hall is filled to capacity. 大厅挤得满满的。 as well (L40): too:  as well (L40): too His face became pale with pain, maybe anger as well. 他的脸因为痛苦,可能也因为愤怒而变得苍白。 I enjoy the food and environment in that restaurant; the service is quite good as well. 我喜欢那家餐馆的食物和氛围,服务也很好。 descend (L46): vi. :  descend (L46): vi. We turned the corner and saw that the road descended sharply. 我们转过弯,看到路陡然下斜。 The sun descended over the western hills. 日落西山。 As we descended to the cave, we felt a little cold. 我们下到那个洞穴里时感到有点冷。 In our text "descend" is used in a literary way. It means that a feeling of tension affects students by spreading among them. One more example: A feeling of sadness descended on him and made him leave the sitting-room quietly. 他感到一阵悲哀,悄悄地离开了客厅。 await (L46): vt. wait for:  await (L46): vt. wait for He is anxiously awaiting the result of the medical tests. 他焦急地等待着医学检测的结果。 A surprise awaited us on our arrival. 当我们到达时,一件意想不到的事发生了。 Good luck awaits all of us. 好运等着我们大家。 Nothing was said as we awaited the arrival of our guests. 我们在等待客人到来时都没有说话。 domestic (L46): a.:  domestic (L46): a. 1) of or inside a particular country, not foreign or international Domestic public opinion had turned against the war. 国内的公众舆论反对战争。 2) of the home, house or family Many women feel they cannot apply for the top jobs because of domestic duties. 许多妇女认为由于家庭责任的原因, 她们不能申请最高层的工作。 She loves going out, but he's very domestic. 她喜欢出门,可他却很恋家。 from then on (L47): since that time:  from then on (L47): since that time She had a car accident a year ago and has suffered from back pain from then on. 一年前她遇到了车祸,从那以后她经常背疼。 From then on he refused to talk about it. 从那时起他就不愿意再谈起这件事了。 adapt (to) (L48): vi. :  adapt (to) (L48): vi. Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark. 我们的眼睛慢慢地适应了黑暗的环境。 When we moved to France, the children adapted to the change well. 我们移居法国时,孩子们很顺利地适应了这一变化。 It will surely take you some time to adapt to new life here. 你当然需要一些时间来适应这里的新生活。 adapt: vt.:  adapt: vt. 1) make sth. suitable for a new use, situation, etc. These trees adapted themselves more easily to the red earth of this region. 这些树木比较容易适应这个地区的红土。 When you go to a new place, you must adapt yourself to customs there. 去一个新的地方时,要使自己适应那里的风俗习惯。 2) change (sth.) for other uses Many science books have been adapted for students. 很多科学读物已经被改写了,以适应学生们的需要。 This machine has been specially adapted for use underwater. 这台机机器已经特别改装过,以适合水下使用。 nourishing (L51): a. :  nourishing (L51): a. Children need plenty of good fresh, nourishing food. 孩子们需要大量新鲜、有营养的食物。 pine (L51): :  pine (L51): 1 ) be very unhappy She certainly has been pining since you left. 你走后,她确实很伤心。 When Carter died in 1904 alter an accident, Leno pined and died in London six months later. 卡特在一次车祸后于1904年去世,丽诺日渐憔悴,6个月后在伦敦逝世。 2) (for) long for or miss They were pilling for their homeland back in Europe. 他们思念在欧洲的故乡。 encounter (L51): vt. :  encounter (L51): vt. We have encountered many serious environmental problems so far. 至今为止,我们已经遇到了很多严重的环境问题。 We encounter stresses of one kind or another each day in our lives. 在生活中,我们每天都会遇到各种各样的压力。 have to do with (L54): :  have to do with (L54): have a connection with Her job has to do with telephones. 她的工作和电话有关系。 tough (L56): a. :  tough (L56): a. determined; self-willed; rigid, unyielding I have never met such a tough guy before. 我以前从没有碰到过这么倔强的家伙。 The employer got tough with his employees and refused to raise their wages. 雇主对雇员们的态度强硬起来,拒绝给他们加薪。 command (L58): n.:  command (L58): n. 1) [ U ] (usu. sing.) ability to use or control sth. He has a good command of the French language. 他精通法语。 He has no command over himself. 他无法控制自己。 2) [C] order You will run forward at my command. 一听到我的命令,你就向前跑。 He hated being in the army because he had to obey commands. 他讨厌当兵,因为他必须服从命令。 in turn (L59): in a sequence:  in turn (L59): in a sequence Theory comes from practice and in turn serves practice. 理论来源于实践,又服务于实践。 estimate (L59)::  estimate (L59): 1) v. make a possible judgment or guess I estimate that tile cost for advertising will be over $2,000,000. 我估计广告费用会超过200万美元。 Ask him to estimate for the design of the building. 让他估计一下设计这幢建筑物的费用。 2) n. a possible judgment or guess Could you give a rough estimate of the cost before the end of this week? 你能不能在本周末之前把所需的费用大致估算出来? The official estimate of the loss was quite beyond our expectation. 官方估计的损失大大出乎我们的意料。 fare (L60)::  fare (L60): 1) n. [C] money charged for a journey by bus, ship, etc. What is the bus fare to London? 到伦敦去的车票价格多少? Train fares are going up again. 火车票价又涨价了。 2) vi. progress; get on How did you fare while you were abroad? 你在国外时过得怎么样? Workers will fare badly under this government. 在这个政府的领导下工人们会过得很惨。 Slide65:  The End

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